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研究生:張育綺
研究生(外文):Yu-Chi Chang
論文名稱:步階式阻抗共振器在微波濾波元件之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Stepped Impedance Resonator on Microwave FilterComponents
指導教授:高家雄翁敏航翁敏航引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Hsiung KaoMin-Hang Weng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:濾波器超寬頻雙頻步階式阻抗共振器釐米波
外文關鍵詞:millimeter waveultra-wide banddual-bandstepped impedance resonatorfilter
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本論文主要分成三大部分:(a) 非對稱式步階式阻抗共振器之設計與研究;(b) 雙頻帶通濾波器以及超寬頻濾波器之設計與製作;(c) 釐米波濾波器之設計與製作。(a) 非對稱式步階式阻抗共振器之設計與研究:在第一部份中,本論文提出一種非對稱式步階式阻抗共振器,並探討共振器之電子長度比以及阻抗比對頻率響應之影響。除了可藉由改變共振器之結構來控制插入損失及混附波響應之外,更能有效的縮短共振器長度,達到面積微小化的優點。此外,該單階步階式阻抗共振器可廣泛應用於射頻積體電路(Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit, RFIC)中。(b) 雙頻帶通濾波器以及超寬頻濾波器之設計與製作:在第二部份中,本論文使用非對稱式步階式阻抗共振器製備雙頻帶通濾波器以及超寬頻濾波器。其中,所設計之雙頻帶通濾波器係符合無線區域網路之規格,而所設計之超寬頻濾波器亦符合聯邦通訊委員會(Federal Communications Commission ,FCC)的標準規定。藉由本論文所推算的理論公式,可準確地調整單階步階式阻抗共振器之結構參數,進而達到理想通帶之響應。(c) 釐米波濾波器之設計與製作:在第三部份中,本論文提出釐米波濾波器之設計,其係以互補金屬氧化物半導體(Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor,CMOS)標準製程製備之。本論文以非對稱式步階式阻抗共振器結構為主,設計並應用於微波濾波元件上,藉以評估製作於矽基板上之可行性。最後,本論文亦對系統晶片整合技術(SoC)提出一些建議與未來工作方向。

This dissertation divides into three parts: (a) design and research of asymmetric stepped impedance resonator (SIR); (b) design and fabrication of dual-band and ultra-wide band (UWB) bandpass filters (BPFs) and (c) design and fabrication of millimeter wave filters. (a)design and research of asymmetric stepped impedance resonator. In the first part of the dissertation, we propose an asymmetric SIR, and the effect of electrical length ratio and impedance ratio on the performance of frequency has been discussed in detail. The insertion loss and spurious can be controlled by the structural parameters of asymmetric SIR which decreases the length of resonator effectively and achieves the reduction of whole size. Additionally, this characterization of the asymmetric SIR can be extensively applied on the interconnection of RFIC. (b) design and fabrication of dual-band and ultra-wide band (UWB) filters. In the second part of the dissertation, we propose dual-band and UWB BPFs by using asymmetric SIRs. The designed dual-band BPF is conformed to the standard of wireless local area network (WLAN), and the designed UWB BPF is conformed to the standard that Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defined. The structural parameters of asymmetric SIR can be adjusted accurately by the theoretical equations we calculated. Then, the ideal performance can be achieved. (c) design and fabrication of millimeter wave filters. In the third part of the dissertation, we propose the design of millimeter wave filters fabricated by the standard of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS). Asymmetric SIRs are used to design the microwave filter to estimate that the feasibility of system on chip (SoC). Finally, some suggestions are made in the future work on technology for system on chip (SoC).


論文審定書 i
致謝 iii
摘要 iv
Abstract v
Contents vii
Chapter 1 General Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 General review of wireless and UWB communication systems 4
1.2.1 Wireless communication systems 4
1.2.2 UWB communication systems 5
1.3 Organization of the dissertation 7
Chapter 2 Transmission Line Theory 11
2.1 Basic theory of microstrip lines 11
2.2 Basic theory of stepped impedance resonator 12
2.3 Basic theory of microwave filters 16
2.4 Basic theory of proposed novel asymmetric stepped-impedance resonator 19
Chapter 3 A Simple Dual-band Bandpass Filter Using Direct-coupled Asymmetric SIRs for WLANs 22
3.1 Introduction 22
3.2 Design of the dual-band BPF 23
3.2.1 Determining the resonant characteristics of the asymmetric SIR 24
3.2.2 Filter design 26
3.3 Experimental results and discussion 28
3.4 Summary 28
Chapter 4 Dual-band Bandpass Filters Using Cross-Coupled Asymmetric SIRs for WLANs and GPS/ WLANs 29
4.1 Introduction 29
4.2 Design of the cross-coupling WLANs BPF with high selectivity 31
4.2.1 Design procedure 31
4.3 Design of the magnetic-coupling GPS/WLANs BPF with high selectivity and wide stopband 37
4.3.1 Resonant characteristics of the asymmetric SIR with one step discontinuity 38
4.3.2 Filter design 40
4.4 Experimental results and discussion 43
4.5 Summary 45
Chapter 5 Low Loss Wideband Bandpass Filters Fabricated by Asymmetric SIRs 47
5.1 Introduction 47
5.2 Design of the wideband BPF with low-loss 49
5.3 Design procedure 52
5.3.1 Filter design 54
5.4 Experimental results and discussion 57
5.5 Summary 59
Chapter 6 A Novel Dual Ultra-wideband Bandpass Filter with High Selectivity to Improve In-band Performance 61
6.1 Introduction 61
6.2 Design of the dual wideband BPF 62
6.3 Experimental results and discussion 66
6.4 Summary 69
Chapter 7 A Millimeter-Wave Bandpass Filter Using Meandering and Multilayered Asymmetric Stepped Impedance Resonator by Standard 0.35 μm CMOS Technology 70
7.1 Introduction 70
7.2 Design procedure 72
7.2.1 Filter structure topology 73
7.2.2 Resonator design 74
7.2.3 Filter design 75
7.3 Experimental results and discussion 76
7.4 Summary 78
Chapter 8 Conclusions and Future Works 80
8.1 Conclusions 80
8.2 Future works 82
Reference 83


List of Figures
Figure 1-1 (a) The development of radio frequency system on chip (RF SoC), and (b) the chart of various RF standards [1]. 2
Figure 1-2 the chart of RF communication system [2]. 3
Figure 1-3 The imaging systems, vehicular radar systems and communications and measurement systems of UWB devices[26, 27]. 5
Figure 1-4 RF data communications coverage range [28-30]. 6
Figure 1-5 PC clusters interconnected through USB [28-30] 7
Figure 2-1 General microstrip line structure. 11
Figure 2-2 (a) Integration of the low-pass filter in the bandpass filter and (b) simulation of a classical second-order DBR filter and of a modified second-order DBR filter [49, 50]. 14
Figure 2-3 (a) Structure and (b) resonance condition of the SIR [51]. 15
Figure 2-4 Fundamental and higher order resonant modes versus length ratio α as function of impedance ratio R = 0.25, 0. 5, 1, 2 and 4. 16
Figure 2-5 Three types of filter (a) maximally flat (b) equal ripple (chebyshev) and (c) elliptic Function[52]. 18
Figure 2-6 Geometrical diagram of the asymmetric stepped-impedance resonator. 19
Figure 3-1 Schematic of the dual-band BPF fabricated on the substrate of Duroid 5880 with thickness of 0.787 mm and dielectric constant εr of 2.2. 23
Figure 3-2 Fundamental and higher order resonant modes versus length ratio α as function of impedance ratio R = 0.25, 0.45, 0.65, 1, 2 and 4. 24
Figure 3-3 Simulated degenerate modes of the resonance frequencies for changing the spacing S1( S2= 21mm and S3=0.3mm are fixed). Inset is the clear narrow band response of 2.4 GHz. 25
Figure 3-4 Simulated degenerate modes of the resonance frequencies for changing the overlapped length S2 (S1= 0.5mm and S3=0.3mm are fixed). Inset is the clear narrow band response of 5.2 GHz. 26
Figure 3-5 (a) Photograph, (b) simulated and measured frequency responses of the fabricated BPF. 27
Figure 4-1. Geometrical diagram of the proposed dual-band BPF using cross-coupled asymmetric SIRs fabricated on the substrate of Duroid 5880 with a thickness of 0.787 mm and a dielectric constant εr of 2.2. 32
Figure 4-2. Fundamental and higher order resonant modes versus length ratio α as function of impedance ratio R = 0.25, 0.45 and 1. 33
Figure 4-3. Coupling coefficients M23, M12 and M34 of the dual-band BPF as shown in Figure 4-1 with spacing (a) S1 and (b) S3 for 1st passband and 2nd passband simultaneously. 36
Figure. 4-4 Practical layout of the designed dual-band BPF. 37
Figure 4-5 Normalized ratios of the second resonant frequency to the fundamental resonant frequency for an asymmetry SIR with R = 0.25, 0.45, 0.65 and 1. 38
Figure 4-6 Coupling coefficient of (a) M23, (b) M12 and M34 for 1st passband and 2nd passband simultaneously. 40
Figure 4-7 Simulated and measured frequency responses of the designed BPF. 42
Figure 4-8 Photograph of the fabricated BPF. 42
Figure 4-9 (a) Simulated and measured frequency responses of the fabricated dual-band BPF and (b) two passbands in detail.(Insert is the photograph.) 43
Figure 5-1 Schematic of the wideband BPF designed on the Duroid 5880 substrate with thickness of 0.787 mm and dielectric constant εr of 2.2. 49
Figure 5-2 Fundamental and higher order resonant modes versus length ratio α as function of impedance ratio R = 0.25, 0.45, 0.65 and 1. 50
Figure 5-3 Simulated FBW of wideband BPF using asymmetric SIR as functions of the spacing S1 (S2= 0.4mm is fixed) and S2 (S1= 0.14mm is fixed). 51
Figure 5-4 Practical layout of the designed UWB-BPF. 52
Figure 5-5. Resonant electric length θt versus length ratio α with impedance ratio R = 0.25, 0.45, 0.65 and 1. 53
Figure 5-6. Simulated performance of the resonant frequencies for changing the spacing S1 ( S2= 0.4mm is fixed). 53
Figure 5-7. Simulated performance of the resonant frequencies for changing the spacing S2 ( S1= 0.4mm is fixed). 54
Figure 5-8 (a) Photograph and (b) simulated and measured frequency responses of the fabricated wideband BPF. 56
Figure 5-9. (a) Simulated and measured frequency responses and (b) measured group delay of the fabricated BPF. Insert in Figur 6-6 (a) is the photograph of fabricated sample. 57
Figure 6-1 Practical layout of the designed Daul-UWBBPF. 62
Figure 6-2 Normalized ratios of the second resonant frequency to the fundamental resonant frequency for an SIR with R = 0.25, 0.45, 0.65, 1, 2, and 4. 63
Figure 6-3 The simulated performance of wide band from 3 to 5 GHz and 6 to 10 GHz respectively. 64
Figure 6-4 (a) Geometry structure, (b) equivalent J-inverter network and susceptance network of parallel-coupled microstrip line. 66
Figure 6-5 (a) Photograph, (b) simulated, measured frequency responses, and (c) measured group delay of the fabricated dual-UWB. 68
Figure 7-1 (a) An cross section of metal levels in standard CMOS technology, and (b) perspective layout of millimeter-wave SIR BPF. 72
Figure 7-2 Fundamental and higher order resonant modes versus length ratio α as function of impedance ratio R = 0.25, 0.45, 0.65, 1, 2 and 4. 74
Figure 7-3 Simulated frequency responses of the millimeter-wave SIR BPF. 75
Figure 7-4 (a) Photograph, (b)simulated and measured frequency responses of the fabricated millimeter-wave SIR BPF. 78

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