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研究生:陳昌謚
研究生(外文):Chang-i Chen
論文名稱:超音波照射對於皮膚組織影響之有限元素模擬
論文名稱(外文):To Study the Effects of Ultrasonic Irradiation on the Skin Tissue by Using Finite Element Simulation
指導教授:錢志回
指導教授(外文):Chi-Hui Chien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:等效應變有限元素法皮膚超音波
外文關鍵詞:finite element methodequivalent strainskinultrasonic
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超音波是聲音的一種傳遞形式,其傳遞過程只有能量的傳遞,沒有質量的傳遞。近年來,超音波被廣泛應用在各方面,如聲納、非破壞檢測、清洗、乳化等;其中因超音波對生理作用的機械振動效應可促進經皮吸收,在醫療美容方面被大量使用中,每年皆有驚人的消費額,並且持續成長中。而皮膚是人體最大的器官,大致可分為表皮層、真皮層與皮下組織,藥物穿透皮膚的途徑主要為直接穿透表皮層與由細胞間隙的脂質層穿透兩種方法。
本研究主要目的在以有限元素法進行數值模擬,藉由建構皮膚的3D模型,探討當皮膚受到超音波按摩時,按摩時間、超音波振幅與頻率等三種因子之不同水準組合,對表皮層、真皮層、皮下組織與肌肉層等效應變分佈的影響。模擬結果顯示,於不同之因子水準組合下,模擬所得之最大等效應變相差近百倍,顯見因子之水準選擇適當與否,會嚴重影響到超音波按摩之療效。至於各因子之影響,結果顯示除表皮層外,對皮膚其他各層組織的應變影響最大的因子皆為振幅。

Ultrasonic is a transport form of sound. There is no mass transportation, only energy transportation occurs in transfer process. Recently, the ultrasonic was widely used in a variety of purposes. For example:sonar, non-destructive testing, washing and emulsification. Due to the effects of mechanical vibration of ultrasonic on the physiological can promote the percutaneous absorption, ultrasonic is widely used in medical cosmetic field. It can get amazing amount of spending and will continue growth every year. The skin is the body''s largest organ, which can be divided into epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. There are two main approaches for drugs to be delivered through the skin: directly penetrate the epidermis and penetrate the lipid layer of cell space.
The main purpose of this study is to executing numerical simulation through finite element analysis. By constructing the 3D FEM model of the skin, the effects of different level combinations of the three factors, massage time, amplitudes and frequencies of ultrasonic, on the equivalent strain distributions of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and muscle layers were studied, while the skin was massaged by using ultrasonic. The simulation results showed that the difference of maximum equivalent strain is nearly one hundred times between different factor’s level combinations. That means the choice of the appropriate factor’s level combination will affect the efficacy of ultrasonic massage seriously. The numerical simulation results also showed that amplitude is the most influential factor on the equivalent strain for every layers of skin except the epidermis.

目錄……………………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
摘要……………………………………………………………………………………Ⅵ
Abstract…………………………………………………………..……………………VII
符號表…………………………………………………………………………..……VIII
第一章 緒論……………………………………………….……………………………1
1.1 研究動機與目標………………………………………………………………1
1.2 文獻回顧………………………………………………………………………2
1.2.1 超音波在工程上之應用………………….……………………………2
1.2.2 超音波在醫學上之應用………………….……………………………2
1.2.3 超音波在皮膚藥物導入之應用………….……………………………4
1.2.4 其他藥物導入方法………………….…………………………………6
1.3 本文架構………………………………………………………………………7
第二章 研究方法……………………………………………….………………..……10
2.1 有限元素法………………………………...………….………………..……10
2.2 皮膚組織模型與材料性質…………………………….……………….……10
2.3 網格收歛性………………………………………….……………….....……11
2.3.1 網格建立……………………………………..……………….....……11
2.3.2 模型收歛性…………………………………..……………….....……12
2.4 模擬條件設定……………………………………….……………….....……12
2.4.1 假設條件…………………………….……….……………….....……12
2.4.2 拘束條件…………………………….……….……………….....……13
2.4.3 黏合元素與接觸元素……………….……….……………….....……13
2.5 動態負載……………………………………….……….………............……14
2.5.1 負載理論公式………………………….……….………............……14
2.5.2 負載數值產生與輸入………………….……….………............……15
2.6 田口品質設計方法………………………….……….……...…............……16
2.6.1 實驗設計法………………………….……….……...….............……16
2.6.1.1 試誤法……………………….……….……....….............……16
2.6.1.2 一次一因子實驗法……………………….……………......…16
2.6.1.3 全因子實驗法……………….……….……....….............……16
2.6.1.4 田口式直交表實驗法……….……….……....….............……17
2.6.2 平均品質損失……………………….……….……...….............……17
2.6.3 S/N比……………………….…………..…….……...….............……17
第三章 結果與討論……………………….…………..…….……...…...............……28
3.1 各因子之水準值………………….…………..…….……...…..............……28
3.2 皮膚各層的應變變化…………….…………..…….……...…..............……28
3.2.1 模擬編號1………………….…………..…….…….....…..............…29
3.2.2 模擬編號5………………….…………..…….…….....…..............…29
3.2.3 模擬編號9………………….…………..…….…….....…..............…30
3.3 皮膚各層因子反應……………….…………..…….…..….....…..............…30
3.4 皮膚剖面的最大等效應變變化圖…………..…….…..….....…...............…31
3.5皮膚各層在各時間點上的最大等效應變圖..…….…..….....…................…32
第四章 結論與未來展望……………….…………..…….…..…..........…..............…46
4.1 結論……………….…………..…….…..…..........….................................…46
4.2 未來展望………….…………..…….…..…..........….................................…46
參考文獻……………….…………..…….…..…..........…........................................…47

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