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研究生:彭尹鴻
研究生(外文):Peng, Yin-hung
論文名稱:新竹地區台灣閩南語海口腔聲調的聲學研究
論文名稱(外文):An acoustic study of tones in Hsinchu Coastal Taiwanese Southern Min
指導教授:張月琴張月琴引用關係謝豐帆謝豐帆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Yueh-chinHsieh, Feng-fan
口試委員:許慧娟張月琴謝豐帆
口試日期:2011-7-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:270
中文關鍵詞:聲調變調混同曲線擬合區別分析
外文關鍵詞:tonetone sandhineutralizationcurve fittingdiscriminant analysis
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This thesis provides detailed acoustic descriptions of tones of the Coastal Taiwanese Southern Min (CTSM) spoken in Hsinchu, Taiwan in terms of the acoustic properties of fundamental frequency (F0), intensity and duration. In previous studies, tones of CTSM sub-dialects have been transcribed based merely on auditory impression. This study investigates the tones of Hsinchu CTSM in an instrumental way by examining the acoustic properties of tones produced in three contexts: tones in isolation (monosyllabic tones), tones on the final syllables of disyllabic tonal sequences (final tones) and tones on the non-final syllables of disyllabic tonal sequences (sandhi tones). In this study, the tones in these three contexts are accurately described and their tone values are given. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the tone values of Hsinchu CTSM tones as proposed in Ang (1997a) and those given in this study.
The main findings are as follows: First, the tone values of final tones and monosyllabic tones proposed in this study are generally similar to those of the citation tones proposed in Ang (1997a), but some important discrepancies between the findings of these two studies can be found in terms of the tone values of tones belonging to the categories of yangping and yangru; as well as in terms of the tone values of sandhi tones belonging to the categories of yangping, yingqu, yangqu, yingru and yangru. In addition, in this study, neutralization in tone sandhi is observed among/between different sandhi tones and also between sandhi tones and monosyllabic tone. Next, as for tones in isolation and on final syllables, unchecked falling tones tend to be shorter than the other unchecked tones. Finally, by treating the pitch contours of tones in isolation as canonical forms, the methods of curve-fitting and discriminant analysis (Andruski and Costello 2004) used in this study can not only measure the degree of similarity between the pitch contours of both non-canonical forms (final/sandhi tones) and canonical forms (monosyllabic tones), but also indirectly measure the degree of similarity between the pitch contours of the non-canonical forms produced in different contexts (final tones and sandhi tones).
本論文試圖從基頻(fundamental frequency)、振幅(intensity) 和時長 (duration)三方面的聲學特性對新竹地區台灣閩南語海口腔方言的聲調做一個詳盡的聲學描述。前人研究對於台灣閩南語海口腔方言的聲調的描述僅憑藉於聽覺,而此研究則以儀器測量之方式來檢驗新竹地區台灣閩南語海口腔方言聲調在孤立、雙字詞後字和雙字詞前字三種不同的環境下之基頻、振幅和時長等三個聲學特性,在此三個環境下所發出的聲調在本文分別被稱為單字調、後字調和變調。對於此三種聲調,本文將會做精確的聲學描述並提供其調值。此外,我們會將洪惟仁(1997a)所提出之新竹地區閩南語海口腔聲調之調值與本研究所提出的調值做比較。
本文有幾個主要發現:第一,此研究所提出的單字調和後字調之調值大致上和洪惟仁(1997a)所提出的本調調值類似,但對於陽平本調、陽入本調、陽平變調、陰去變調、陽去變調、陰入變調和陽入變調之調值而言,兩研究之間也是有重要差別的。第二,變調現象(tone sandhi)中的混同(neutralization)情形會出現在不同變調之間、後字調與單字調之間或者變調與單字調之間。此外,我們發現在孤立和雙字詞後字兩個環境下,舒聲降調的時長會傾向比其他舒聲調的時長短。最後,如將孤立調之聲調曲線假設為該語言聲調的正規形式(canonical forms),利用Andruski and Costello (2004) 所提出的曲線擬合法(curve-fitting)和區別分析法(discriminant analysis),我們不只能夠測量非正規形式(後字調或變調之聲調曲線)與正規形式(單字調之聲調曲線)之間的相似度,還能夠間接測量不同環境下之非正規形式(後字調和變調之聲調曲線)之間的相似度。
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (誌謝辭) iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iv
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES xviii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Literature review 2
1.2.1 Phonological studies of tones in Taiwanese in general 2
1.2.2 Acoustic studies of tones in Taiwanese in general 5
1.2.3 Previous studies on CTSM tones 8
1.3 Organization of this thesis 10
Chapter 2 An Introduction to Coastal Taiwanese Southern Min 11
2.1 The geographic distribution of CTSM 11
2.2 Taiwanese Southern Min sub-dialects and the status of CTSM 19
2.3 Vowels and consonants of Hsinchu CTSM 20
2.3.1 Ang (1997a) 20
2.3.2 This study 23
2.4 Hsinchu CTSM tonal system (Ang 1997a) 25
2.5 Interim summary 27
Chapter 3 Methods 30
3.1 Participants 30
3.2 Word lists and carrier phrases 30
3.3 Recording procedure 33
3.4 Acoustic analysis 34
3.5 Curve-fitting and discriminant analysis 37
Chapter 4 Monosyllabic Tones 42
4.1 Individual monosyllabic tones 42
4.1.1 Unchecked (long) tones 43
4.1.2 Checked (short) tones 55
4.2 The acoustic realizations of tones in monosyllabic tone contrasts 63
4.2.1 Unchecked (long) tones 63
4.2.2 Checked (short) tones 67
4.2.3 Tone letters of monosyllabic tones 77
4.3 The correlations between the F0 contours and the intensity curves (the RMS energy contours) 88
4.3.1 Unchecked (long) tones 89
4.3.2 Checked (short) tones 97
4.3.3 Interim summary 102
4.4 Discussions and conclusions 102
4.4.1 The acoustic realizations of monosyllabic tone contrasts 102
4.4.2 Tone letters of monosyllabic tones 103
4.4.3 Correlations between the LZ-normalized F0 contours and the RMS energy contours 105
Chapter 5 Final Tones 108
5.1 Individual final tones 108
5.1.1 Unchecked (long) tones 109
5.1.2 Checked (short) tones 126
5.2 The acoustic realizations of tones in final tone contrasts 132
5.2.1 Unchecked (long) tones 132
5.2.2 Checked (short) tones 135
5.2.3 Tone letters of final tones 145
5.3 Conclusions 153
5.3.1 Individual tones 153
5.3.2 The acoustic realizations of final tone contrasts 153
Chapter 6 Non-final (sandhi) Tones 155
6.1 Individual sandhi tones 155
6.1.1 Unchecked (long) tones 156
6.1.2 Checked (short) tones 173
6.1.3 The similarity between sandhi tones and monosyllabic tones in terms of LZ-normalized F0 contours 177
6.2 The acoustic realizations of tones in sandhi tone contrasts 201
6.2.1 Unchecked (long) tones 201
6.2.2 Checked (short) tones (sandhi tones T7' and T8') 204
6.2.3 Tone letters of sandhi tones 218
6.3 Discussions and conclusions 227
6.3.1 Individual tones 227
6.3.2 The acoustic realizations of sandhi tone contrasts 228
Chapter 7 General discussions and conclusions 231
7.1 The tone values of Hsinchu CTSM tones 231
7.2 Neutralization in tone sandhi 233
7.2.1 Neutralization within prosodic positions (non-final (sandhi) positions) 233
7.2.2 Neutralization across prosodic positions (non-final (sandhi) positions and and in isolations.) 234
7.2.3 Summary 236
7.3 The short duration of T3 and T5 236
7.4 The method of curve-fitting and discriminant analysis 238
7.5 Conclusions and future research 239
REFERENCES 242
Appendix A Word lists 245
Appendix B Acoustic measurements 259
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