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研究生:黃湘茹
研究生(外文):Hsiang-Ru Huang
論文名稱:中文會話共構現象之研究
論文名稱(外文):Co-construction in Mandarin Conversation
指導教授:畢永峨畢永峨引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yung-O Biq
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:131
中文關鍵詞:共構啟後性子句會話社會互動
外文關鍵詞:co-constructionprojectabilityclauseconversationsocial interaction
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本論文探討中文會話共構現象。「共構」一詞泛指任何兩方共同合作完成之活動,在會話中,「共構」特指說話者尚未結束之語句由聽話者加以補足完成之現象。本研究以中文語料庫為基礎,自語料庫隨機抽取六十筆共構之對話,從語法及語用的角度加以分析會話共構現象,既探究說話者未盡語句中產生啟後性之語法特徵與語法要素,亦討論雙方會話共構時共伴之互動特性。
本研究發現會話共構時,說話者未結束之語句可有兩種層次之語法啟後性:「範疇啟後性」與「子句啟後性」,兩者皆投射一個尚待完成的「子句」原形,補足語法要素方能使說話者未盡語句之語意與結構完整。其中,範疇啟後性投射出未盡語句即將出現之語法範疇,而子句啟後性則投射言談將至之謂語元素或子句元素,待補足後,方能使語句之語意與語法結構完整。本研究進一步分析在會話共構結構中顯現之中文特有的語法特徵。其中主題與謂語共構反映中文主題明顯性;說話者自由選擇子句連繫成分出現與否並促使話輪共構延伸則突顯中文子句可無連繫成分之特性;賓語或主要名詞的省略則顯現中文言談中已知之指涉詞可省略之特色,在在皆反映中文語言特殊性。
本研究從會話共構時雙方互動的情形得知:首先,說話者說話時遲疑抑或未顯現遲疑皆可能導致聽話者共構會話,然說話者常以句中停頓、最終音節拉長、詞語重複與語助詞顯露說話者語帶遲疑。語料庫中,說話者講話遲疑時常用之用語又以「那個」、「那種」、「一些」、「什麼」最為常見。再者,當聽話者共構對話時,聽話者通常立即共構說話者未盡之語句,鮮少遲疑。最後,當共構現象發生後,說話者多加以回應,表以贊同,又以回應詞「對」回應聽話者最為常見。整體而言,共構現象出現時,說話者給予正面回應是可預期之社會互動。
本研究結果支持 Thompson and Couper-Kuhlen (2005) 之論述,即認為子句為語法之根本、言談互動之單位,而語法由言談間自然浮現。

This study explores co-construction in Mandarin conversation. Co-construction can refer to any joint activity accomplished by two parties. In conversation, co-construction refers to the case where the unfinished utterance of the speaker is collaboratively completed by the listener. In the present study, 60 pieces of co-construction are randomly retrieved for analysis from a corpus of naturally occurring conversations in Mandarin. All the data are examined on their syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects. The syntactic composition of co-construction, the projecting element in the speaker's unfinished turn, and the co-constructed element by the listener are analyzed from the view of projectability. In addition, the pragmatic features in each turn of conversation participants during co-construction are also investigated.
In our study, two levels of projectability are identified: categorical projection and clausal projection, both of which lead to clause completion. Categorical projection projects an upcoming grammatical category. Clausal projection is observed to make projection of an upcoming predicative format or an upcoming clause. Both types provide the listener with opportunities for co-construction. Particularly, we observe that topic prominence, the speaker's choice of not explicitly stating the linking element, and ellipsis, which are prominent features in Mandarin, are manifested in our data of co-construction.
Our investigation of the pragmatic features in each speech turn during co-construction shows that, firstly, co-construction may occur with or without the speaker showing hesitation. When the speaker shows hesitation in his unfinished utterance, hesitation is shown through pragmatic features such as pause, lengthening, word repetition, and hesitation expressions. Typical hesitation expressions observed in this study are nage, nazhong, yixie, and sheme. Next, the listener mostly co-constructs the speaker's sentence immediately. Lastly, when co-construction occurs, the speaker tends to respond to the offered co-construction and show their agreement, especially through the deployment of agreement tokens. In general, co-construction may prefigure the speaker's agreement in the turn following co-construction.
Our study of co-construction in Mandarin conversation conforms to Thompson and Couper-Kuhlen (2005) that speakers show clause orientation in conversation and that grammar is interactionally organized.
CHINESE ABSTRACT i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES ix
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS x
LIST OF TRANSCRIPTION NOTATIONS xi
Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and Goals 1
1.2 Data and Methodology 3
1.3 Organization of the Thesis 4
Chapter Two Literature Review 5
2.1 Interplay of Grammar and Interaction 5
2.1.1 Projectability 6
2.1.2 Clause-oriented Interaction 8
2.2 An Overview of Co-construction 11
2.3 Previous Studies on Co-construction 12
2.3.1 Lerner (1991) 13
2.3.2 Lerner (1996) 17
2.3.3 Hayashi (1999) 20
2.3.4 Helasvuo (2004) 20
2.3.5 Chevalier and Clift (2008) 22
2.3.6 Interim Summary 22
2.4 Summary 23
Chapter Three Projectability in Co-construction 24
3.1 Categorical Projection in Co-construction 25
3.1.1 Modifying Phrases 25
3.1.1.1 Attributive Adjectives 26
3.1.1.2 Relative Clauses 27
3.1.2 Associative Phrases 28
3.1.3 Classifier Phrases 29
3.1.4 Nominal Connectives 31
3.1.5 Adverbs 32
3.1.6 Auxiliary Verbs 37
3.1.7 Coverbs 38
3.1.8 Serial Verb Construction 42
3.1.9 Pivotal Construction 43
3.1.10 The Verb You 有 44
3.1.11 The Copula Verb Shi 是 48
3.1.12 Verbs 49
3.1.12.1 Transitive Verbs 49
3.1.12.2 Ditransitive Verbs 51
3.1.13 Comparative Construction 52
3.1.14 The Yue...yue... Construction (越…越…) 54
3.1.15 Interim Summary 55
3.2 Clausal Projection 56
3.2.1 Subject-Predicate Structure 56
3.2.2 The Shi...de Construction (是...的) 59
3.2.3 Topic Chain 63
3.2.4 Linking Elements 65
3.2.4.1 Backward Linking 66
3.2.4.1.1 Danshi 但是 66
3.2.4.1.2 Yinwei 因為 67
3.2.4.1.3 Jieguo 結果 68
3.2.4.2 Forward Linking 69
3.2.4.2.1 ...de shihou ...的時候 69
3.2.4.2.2 ...zhihou ...之後 70
3.2.4.3 Interim Summary 71
3.2.5 Topic-Comment Structure 72
3.2.6 Interim Summary 74
3.3 Discussion 74
3.3.1 Topic Prominence 75
3.3.2 Choice of not Explicitly Stating the Linking Element 79
3.3.3 Ellipsis 80
3.3.4 Interim Summary 83
3.4 Summary 83
Chapter Four Interaction in Co-construction 84
4.1 Co-construction Concerning the Speaker's Progressivity of Turn 85
4.1.1 Co-construction without the Speaker's Hesitation 86
4.1.2 Co-construction with the Speaker's Hesitation 90
4.1.2.1 Pause 90
4.1.2.2 Lengthening 91
4.1.2.3 Word Repetition 93
4.1.2.4 Hesitation Expressions 94
4.1.2.4.1 Nage那個 95
4.1.2.4.2 Nazhong那種 96
4.1.2.4.3 Yixie一些 97
4.1.2.4.4 Sheme什麼 99
4.1.2.4.5 Interim Summary 99
4.1.3 Summary 99
4.2 Pragmatic Features Co-occurring with the Listener's Co-construction 100
4.2.1 The Listener's Co-construction without Hesitation 100
4.2.2 The Listener's Co-construction with Hesitation 101
4.2.3 Interim Summary 105
4.3 The Speaker's Response to Co-construction 105
4.3.1 No Turn-taking: No Response from the Speaker 106
4.3.2 Response from the Speaker 107
4.3.2.1 The Speaker's Agreement with Agreement Tokens 111
4.3.2.2 The Speaker's Repetition 115
4.3.2.3 The Speaker's Repair 117
4.3.2.4 Others 118
4.3.3 Interim Summary 119
4.4 Summary 120
Chapter Five Conclusion 122
5.1 Summary of the Findings 122
5.2 Implications of the Study 125
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Research 126
References 128

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