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研究生:蔡育明
研究生(外文):Yu-Ming Tsai
論文名稱:水泥質材料加速氯離子傳輸試驗之加速時間與鹽水浸漬試驗浸漬時間之關係
論文名稱(外文):The relationship between migration time in ACMT and ponding time in Ponding test
指導教授:楊仲家
指導教授(外文):Chung-Chia Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:材料工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:87
中文關鍵詞:氯離子穿透深度加速氯離子傳輸試驗浸漬試驗電壓加速試驗
外文關鍵詞:Chloride penatration depthACMTPonding testMigration test
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鹽水浸漬試驗﹝Ponding Test﹞是用以評估混凝土耐久性的方法之一,但所需的試驗時間極長,動輒兩、三個月以上,為了節省試驗時間而有了加速氯離子傳輸試驗﹝ACMT﹞,以24伏特電壓加速氯離子傳輸,由迴歸後的函數可以得知氯離子最終穿透深度,利用ponding test及ACMT的氯離子穿透深度,以相同之穿透深度判斷兩個試驗所需的時間關係。本研究以飛灰、爐石、爐灰三組礦物參料的水泥砂漿試體,各組均以0.35、0.45、0.55、0.65之水灰比,水中養護91天後,進行鹽水浸漬試驗與加速氯離子傳輸試驗,鹽水浸漬試驗之浸漬天數分別為60、90、120及180天;而加速氯離子傳輸試驗之加速時間分別為0.05、0.1、0.2及0.3倍氯離子穿透5公分試體的穿透時間,再評估氯離子於試體內的分布情形,尋找兩試驗非穩定態穿透的時間關係以及深度關係。本研究結果顯示,各配比試體經試驗後達相同穿透深度時,兩試驗間的時間關係不因添加不同礦物參料而影響,並且呈良好的線性關係,未來將可經由加速氯離子傳輸試驗的結果,配合此關係式判斷對應的ponding時間。
Ponding test is one of methods to evaluate the durability of concrete materials, but it takes more than two months in this procedure, in order to economize the time used in access durability of cementitious materials, the Accelerated chloride migration test had developed (ACMT), which used 24 volts as driving force. In this study, the final penetration depth could be found after curve fitting, when there caused the same penetration depth, the time relation will be determined. In this project, three groups of mortars with different mineral mixtures (fly ash, slag and fly ash plus slag), and each group also designed for four kinds of water-to-binder ratios (w/c = 0.35, 0.45, 0.55, and 0.65), twelve mixtures totally, after processed four kinds of migration time of ACMT, and three kinds of ponding time, the profile of chloride ions in each specimen could be observed, and then discuss the relation between the migration time and Ponding time in ACMT and Ponding test, respectively. From the test result in this study, we can concluded that the time relation between ACMT and ponding test would not be affected by the difference of mortar mixture, which including mineral content and water-to-binder ratio, moreover, the time relation showed a very good linear relationship, the non-steady test result of ACMT cooperate with the conclusion of this study could be used to assess the correspond ponding time of cementitious materials in the future.
Abstract i
Outline ii
List of Tables v
List of Figures vi

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Objective of research 3

Chapter 2
Literature Review
2.1 Mechanism of chloride ion transport in concrete 4
2.2 Theory of chloride ion diffusion in concrete 5
2.3 Ion migrate in concrete under an electrical field 6
2.4 The factor influence on diffusion rate in concrete 8

Chapter 3
Experimental Program
3.1 Materials and mix proportion 11
3.1.1 Material details 11
3.1.2 Mix proportion 15
3.2 Specimen preparation and vacuum saturation 15
3.3 Test procedure of ACMT 17
3.3.1 Define break through time (BT) and migration time 20
3.4 Test procedure of Ponding test 21
3.5 Analysis of chloride content 22

Chapter 4
Results and Discussion
4.1 Transmission steps in ACMT 25
4.1.1 ACMT transmission result and transition period 26
4.1.2 Define break through time (BT) and migration time 39
4.2 Results of ACMT 41
4.2.1 Chloride distribution in specimen 41
4.2.2 The coefficients from curve fitting 48
4.3 Results of Ponding test 52
4.3.1 Chloride distribution in specimen 52
4.3.2 The coefficients from curve fitting 59
4.4 Relationship between migration time in ACMT and Ponding time in Ponding test 64

Chapter 5
Conclusion and suggestion 72

References 74

Vita 76

Acknowledgement 77

[1] Stanish, K. D., hooton, R. D.,Thomas, M.D.A., “Testing the Chloride Penetration Resistance of Concrete: A Literature Review,” FHWA Report, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, pp. 1-33, 1997.
[2] Bickley, J. A., “The mass transport of all those nasty little b..g..rs,” International conference on ion and mass transport in cement based materials, Toronto, 1999.
[3] AASHTO T259-80, “Standard method of test for resistance of concrete to chloride ion penetration,” American Association of States Highway and Transportation Official, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 1980.
[4] ASTM 1202-00, “Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration”, American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000.
[5] Li, Z., Peng, J., Ma, B., “Investigation of chloride diffusion for high performance concrete containing fly ash, microsilica and che mical admixtures,” ACI journal, Vol.96, No.3, pp.391-396, 1999.
[6] Hooton, R.D., “What is need in a permeability test for evaluation of concrete quality, pore structure and permeability of cementitious materials,” Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Boston, USA, pp. 1459-1475, 1987.
[7] Andrade, C., “Calculation of chloride diffusion coefficients in concrete from ionic migration measurements,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 724-742, 1993.
[8] McCarter, W. J., Starrs, G., Chrisp, T. M., “Electrical conductivity, diffusion, and permeability of Portland cement-based mortars,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30, No. 9, pp. 1395-1400, 2000.
[9] Wee, T. H., Arvind, K. S., Tin, S. S., “The influence of aggregate fraction in the mix on the reliability of rapid chloride permeability test,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 59-72, 1999.
[10] Castellote, M. and Andrade, C. Alonso, C., “Modeling of the processes during steady-state migration test: quantification of transference numbers,” Materials and Structures, Vol32, No. 217, pp. 180-186, 1999.
[11] Tong, L. and Gjorv, O. E., “Chloride diffusivity based on migration testing,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 31, No. 7, pp. 973-982.
[12] Yang, C. C., Cho, S.W., Chi, Jack. M., and Huang, R., “An Electrochemical Method for Accelerated Chloride Migration Test in Cement-based Materials,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.77, No. 2, pp. 463-471, 2002.
[13] Andrade, C., “Calculation of chloride diffusion coefficients in concrete from ionic migration measurements,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.39, No.1, pp.724-742, 1993.
[14] Johannesson, B. F.,”Diffusion of a mixture of cations and anions dissolved in water,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 29, No.8, pp. 1261-1270, 1999.
[15] Crow, D. R., “Principle and application of electrochemistry,” 4th edition, Chapman & Hall, UK, pp. 55, 1994.
[16] AASHTO T277-93, “Electrical indication of concrete’s ability to resist chloride,” American Association of States Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D. C., U. S. A., 1993.
[17] AASHTO T260-97, “Standard method of test for sampling and testing for chloride ion in concrete and concrete raw materials,” American Association of States Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D. C., U. S. A., 1997.
[18] Neville, A. M., “Properties of concrete,” Fourth and final edition, Prentice Hall, pp. 26-34, 1995.
[19] Metha, P. K., and Monteiro, P. J. M., “Concrete-Structure, Properties, and Materials,” Prentice Hall, pp. 26-29, 1993.
[20] Leng, F., Leng, N., and Lu, X., “An experimental study on the properties of resistance to diffusion of chloride ions of fly ash and blast furnace slag concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 989-992, 2000.
[21] Ramezanianpour, A. A., Malhotra, V. M., “Effect of cutting on the compressive strength, resistance to diffusion of chloride ion penetration and porosity of concretes incorporating slag, fly ash or silica fume,” Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 125-133, 1995.
[22] Midgley, H. G. and Illston, J. M. “The penetration of chloride into hardened cement pastes,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.14, No.4, pp.546-558, 1984.

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