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研究生:林威成
研究生(外文):Wei-Cheng Lin
論文名稱:不同氮源和固定化保種對渦鞭毛藻成長和產毒性之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Nitrogen Sources and Immobilization on Growth and Toxin Production of Dinoflagellates
指導教授:黃登福黃登福引用關係陳衍昌陳衍昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Deng-Fwu HwangYean-Chang Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:麻痺性貝毒渦邊毛藻固定化保種
外文關鍵詞:paralytic shellfish poisondinoflagellateimmobilization
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Gymnodinium catenatum (裸甲藻) 為一種會產生麻痺性貝毒 (paralytic shellfish poison, PSP) 成鏈狀群體的渦鞭毛藻,會因為被濾食性水中生物濾食而將毒素蓄積於水中生物體內,若成人類誤食,會引發中毒症狀。G. catenatum多生長於沿岸地區,Graham 在 1943 年於墨西哥首度發現,在往後的 20 年內,G. catenatum也陸續的在世界各國出現,且有逐漸增加的趨勢,包括墨西哥、阿根廷、烏拉圭、澳洲、摩洛哥、菲律賓、西班牙、日本等也都有中毒事件發生,近年來中國大陸也有發現它們的蹤跡。臺灣則於 1986 年高屏地區和 1991 年嘉義地區,曾發生因誤食含有麻痺性貝毒的水產品而造成中毒之案例,其藻毒來源經證實是由有毒渦鞭毛藻 Alexandrium minutum (微小亞歷山大甲藻) 所引起的,而營養因子會影響其生長及產毒,其中又以佔了 PSP 結構中 33% 的氮最為重要,故本研究之第一部分即是利用額外添加的不同型式氮源,包括硝酸鹽氮、亞硝酸鹽氮、銨鹽氮和尿素氮,探討對 G. catenatum 產毒及生長之影響。結果發現高濃度 (750 ppm) 的亞硝酸鹽會使得裸甲藻的生長較為緩慢;而低濃度 (7.5 ppm) 的尿素氮則裸甲藻的生長情形較佳。其在培養期間內的總產毒量變化不大,且單一藻細胞所含的毒量,隨著培養天數的增加而有下降的趨勢。分析藻毒的成分發現是由 C1、C2 毒素及 STX 組成,其中 STX 佔了超過 50% 的比例,但毒素組成並不會隨著氮源的不同而有明顯的改變。
一般藻類實驗室在微藻的保種上,大都是以液體培養及斜面培養基培養兩種方式為主,但為了避免因長時間在實驗室的人為環境下培養導致藻細胞的變異 (如:毒性喪失等),海大養殖系藻類應用生理實驗室,特別發展出一種固定化微藻之保種技術,因此第二部分特別利用此技術,探討將此方法應用在具有鞭毛的渦鞭毛藻上之可行性,即觀察比較固定化保種前後,A. minutum 及 G. catenatum 在生長及產毒上的差異,以便了解此方法對於藻種的保存是否具有應用性。由結果發現產毒渦鞭毛藻 A. minutum 的生長曲線在固定化前後差異不大,但在其粗蛋白的比例上卻有所改變,且固定化後毒性上升許多。而 G. catenatum 經過固定化保種後無法順利生長,推測是離心的過程使得藻體受到傷害,因此無法順利生長。

Gymnodinium catenatum is dinoflagellates formed chain-likes colony, which could produce paralytic shellfish poison (PSP). The aquatic animals which filter the foods will accumulate PSP in their bodies, and humans may be poisoned by the way of food chain. G. catenatum was discoveried in Maxico by Graham in 1943, and the food poisoning incidents appeared in Argentina, Uruguay, Australia, Morocco, Spain, Japan, and Philippines during recent twenty years. In recent years, China and Hong Kung also found G. catenatum. In Taiwan, the PSP incidents occurred in 1986 in Pingtung and in 1991 in Chaiyi, and the toxins were both identified came from the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Some of toxic dinoflagellates could be affected by the environmental nutrients. Nitrogen is one of the important factors because there was 33% of nitrogen in PSP. In the first part of this study, we used NaNO3, NaNO2, NH4Cl, and CH4N2O with different concentrations (7.5 ppm, 75 ppm, 750 ppm of N) to culture G. catenatum, and compared with their situations of growth and toxin. The results showed that high concentration (750 ppm) of nitrite made G. catenatum grow slowly, and urea made the growth best in the low concentration (7.5 ppm). The total toxicity of G. catenatum did not have significant variations of these four nitrogen sources, but the single cell toxicity was decreased during the culture time. The composition of algal toxin was C1, C2 and saxitoxin (STX), and STX was more than 50%. The components and percentages of toxin would not vary significantly with different nitrogen sources.
Liquid culture and slant culture were the two primary treatments for microalgae in preservation laboratory. Some studies reported that the toxic alga might have some variations, for example: loss of toxicity, when cultured at artificial environment in laboratory for a long time. In the second part of this study, we found that whether A. minutum and G. catenatum would be different in growth, toxicity, and composition after treatment with immobilization. The results showed that growth curve of A. minutum was not changed, but the crude protein was significant increased, and the toxicity was higher than that of non-immobilization. G. catenatum could not grow successfully after treated with immobilization. The possible reason was that the individuals of G. catenatum were hurt by treatment of centrifugation.
中文摘要 1
Abstract 3
第一章、文獻整理
一、麻痺性貝毒 6
二、有毒渦鞭毛藻引起紅潮之發生 13
三、有毒渦鞭毛藻之產毒特性 16
四、有毒渦鞭毛藻藻毒之存在位置 17
五、有毒渦鞭毛藻 Gymnodinium catenatum 之特性 18
六、有毒渦鞭毛藻 Alexandrium minutum 之特性 20
七、固定化藻株 22
第二章、不同氮源對渦鞭毛藻 Gymnodinium catenatum 生長及
產毒性之影響
ㄧ、前言 25
二、材料與方法 26
三、結果 30
四、討論 34
圖表 38
第三章、固定化保種對產毒渦鞭毛藻在生長、毒性及一般成分上
之影響
ㄧ、前言 51
二、材料與方法 52
三、結果 56
四、討論 59
圖表 62
總結 69
參考文獻 70
謝辭 90
附錄 92


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