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研究生:杜德芬
研究生(外文):Delphine Beyrend-Dur
論文名稱:由溫帶到熱帶半淡鹹水中關鍵種橈足類之生活史特徵
論文名稱(外文):Life history traits of key brackish copepods from temperate to tropical environments
指導教授:黃將修蘇逸熙
指導教授(外文):Jiang-Shiou, HwangSami Souissi
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋生物研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:218
中文關鍵詞:廣鹽性橈足類哲水蚤河口不同環境
外文關鍵詞:brackish copepodcalanoidestuaryconstrasted environments
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摘要
浮游動物族群動態研究為全球暖化對水域生態系的影響提供新的了解,因此既是要考慮全球性的變化,本論文主題即試圖利用適當的尺度在不同氣候區間探討浮游動物族群變化是如何受到氣候的影響。 法國與台灣在氣候上分屬於溫帶及熱帶/亞熱帶國家。Eurytemora affinis是溫帶半淡鹹水水域中的關鍵物種,前人研究中也被廣泛討論;Pseudodiaptomus annandalei是在台灣熱帶/亞熱帶半淡鹹水水域中橈足類之優勢種。本論文以P. annandalei為實驗材料,探討溫度及鹽度對其生活史之影響,分析是否有交互作用存在;同時觀察此橈足類生殖生物學以了解在野外環境中族群動態變化。另外探討兩種不同氣候區域橈足類受何種環境因子影響,分別由亞熱帶之淡水河河口採集P. annandalei,溫帶塞納河河口採集E. affinis,觀察兩種橈足類在截然不同氣候區域中,野外族群動態變化。 P. annandalei生活史研究結果顯示,此種橈足類雖生活在半淡鹹水環境,可適應溫度及鹽度的劇烈變化,但其最適生長鹽度為15,最適生長溫度則在25-30°C之間。野外調查結果發現,在不同氣候區域中,影響兩種橈足類族群動態之環境變因不同,溫帶塞納河河口為污水排放的注入,亞熱帶淡水河口則為颱風。 最後除了可將本研究中熱帶/亞熱帶橈足類族群動態變化結果應用於養殖業之外,也為全球氣候變遷如何影響亞熱帶半淡鹹水水域生態系提供一絲脈絡。
Abstract
The study of the plankton population dynamics brings new insights on the effects of the global climate change on aquatic ecosystems. However, there is a real need to have a global overview of these effects through inter-site comparisons at appropriate scales.
France and Taiwan are two countries located in contrasting climate regimes, respectively temperate and subtropical/tropical. In France, the temperate brackish copepod Eurytemora affinis which is known as key species has been the subject of numerous laboratory and field studies. P. annandalei which is also a dominant brackish copepod but in subtropical/tropical Indo-Pacific regions found in Taiwan, has not been well studied despite its ecological and economical importance.
In this thesis we studied the life history of the copepod P. annandalei particularly the effects of temperature-salinity interactions and other aspects such as the reproductive biology to understand its population dynamics in the field. We also investigate the population dynamics of dominant copepods in two contrasting estuaries including P. annandalei and E. affinis respectively in the subtropical Danshuei Estuary and the temperate Seine Estuary. The main originality of this work was to use similar protocols in laboratory and in the field observations in the two contrasting systems.
The life history study of P. annandalei highlighted the importance of temperature and salinity in its life cycle strategy. It is able to develop and reproduce in a wide range of temperature-salinity conditions however it showed better fitness at temperature 25-30°C and salinity 15. The field studies showed that the population dynamics of copepods was driven by different environmental factors in the two contrasting systems such as the river discharge in the temperate Seine Estuary and the typhoons in the subtropical Danshuei Estuary.
Finally our result may find some interests and applications in subtropical/tropical copepod population dynamics and in industrial aquaculture as well as in the ecology of subtropical brackish systems within the global climate change context.
CONTENT
List of tables i
List of figures iv
GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
1. Background 2
2. General framework 3
3. Context of the study and originality 3
4. Why key brackish calanoid copepods? 5
5. The scientific approach: Thesis outline 6
PART A -- LITERRATURE REVIEW 8
1. Aquatic poikilotherms 9
2. Zooplankton 10
3. Copepods: Generalities on Calanoids 11
3.1. Systematic 11
3.2. Adult morphology 13
3.3. Life cycle 16
3.3.1. Methods to study the life cycle 16
3.3.2. Development and growth 17
3.3.3. Reproduction 19
3.3.4. Mortality and longevity 20
4. Estuarine copepods 21
4.1. The estuary: a fluctuating habitat 21
4.2. Adaptations to physico-chemical variations 21
4.2.1. Salinity and hydrodynamics 21
4.2.2. Temperature and salinity interactions 23
5. Sites of interest 25
5.1. Subtropical and tropical zones: Taiwan 25
5.1.1. Subtropical zone: Danshuei Estuary 26
5.1.2. Tropical zone: brackish ponds 27
5.2. Temperate zone: Seine Estuary 27
6. Copepods of interest 29
6.1. Subtropical/tropical regions Pseudodiaptomus annandalei 29
6.1.1. Morphology 29
6.1.2. Distribution 31
6.1.3. Life cycle 32
6.1.4. Ecology 33
6.2. Temperate region: Eurytemora affinis 35
6.2.1. Morphology 35
6.2.2. Distribution 36
6.2.3. Life cycle 38
6.2.4. Ecology 38
6.3. From tropical to temperate regions: Acartia spp. 41
6.3.1. Morphology 41
6.3.2. Distribution 41
6.3.3. Life cycle 42
6.3.4. Ecology 43
PART B -- MATERIALS AND METHODS 44
1. Laboratory experiments on P. annandalei 45
1.1. Stock cultures 45
1.1.1. Microalgae 45
1.1.2. Copepods 45
1.2. Life cycle traits of P. annandalei: temperature & salinity effects 47
1.2.1. Post-embryonic development and longevity 48
1.2.2. Reproduction 49
1.3. Reproductive biology 51
1.3.1. Remating necessity/Mating limitation 51
1.3.2. Ultrastructure of reproductive apparatus 52
1.3.3. Interpopulation cross-mating 53
2. Field studies 54
2.1. Population dynamics in the sub-tropical Danshuei Estuary 54
2.1.1. Sampling strategy 54
2.1.2. Environmental factors 55
2.1.3. Plankton sampling 56
2.1.4. Determination in laboratory 56
2.1.5. P. annandalei’s adult size and fecundity 57
2.2. Population dynamics in the temperate Seine Estuary 58
2.2.1. Hydrography and sampling strategy 58
2.2.2. Environmental factors 60
2.2.3. Plankton sampling 61
2.2.4. Determination in laboratory 62
2.3. The tropical brackish ponds 63
2.3.1. Seasonal effects on P. annandalei’s adult size and fecundity 63
2.3.2. Sediment sampling and resting egg experiments 63
PART C-- LIFE HISTORY OF PSEUDODIAPTOMUS ANNANDALEI 65
CHAPTER I: EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND SALINITY ON THE LIFE CYCLE TRAITS 66
1. Introduction 67
2. Methods 69
2.1. Post-embryonic development and longevity 69
2.2. Reproduction 69
2.3. Data analysis 69
3. Results 69
3.1. Post-embryonic development and longevity 69
3.2. Reproduction 77
4. Discussion 86
4.1. Temperature and salinity effects on life cycle traits of P. annandalei 86
4.1.1 Development and mortality 86
4.1.2. Reproduction 89
4.2. Life history patterns 91
4.3. Mating limitation, generation and maternal effect 92
5. Conclusion 93
CHAPTER II: MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AND INTERPOPULATION CROSS MATING 94
1. Introduction 95
2. Methods 96
3. Results and Discussion 96
4.Conclusion 105
PART D -- POPULATION DYNAMICS IN SITU 106
CHAPTER I: SUB- AND TROPICAL BRACKISH WATERS 107
1. Introduction 108
2. Methods 110
2.1. Sampling strategies 110
2.2. Data analysis 110
3. Results 111
3.1. Seasonal and interannual variations of the population structure of dominant calanoid copepods in the mesohaline Danshuei Estuary 111
3.1.1. Environmental factors 111
3.1.2. Density and structure of copepod populations 112
3.1.3. Population structure and environmental factors 118
3.2. Adult size and fecundity of P. annandalei: comparison with tropical ponds 121
3.2.1. Prosome size and fecundity 121
3.2.2. Comparison between copepods from the subtropical estuary and tropical ponds 122
3.3. Copepod resting eggs in the sediment of tropical ponds 124
4. Discussion 125
4.1. P. annandalei population 125
4.2. Change in copepod dominance 126
4.3. Typhoon effect 128
4.4. Methodology 129
5. Conclusion 130
CHAPTER II: TEMPERATE ESTUARY 131
1. Introduction 132
2. Methods 133
2.1. Sampling strategies 133
2.2. Data analysis 133
3. Results 134
3.1. River discharge in the Seine Estuary 134
3.2. Downstream: Normandie Bridge 135
3.2.1. Hydrography and environmental factors 135
3.2.2. Calanoid populations 140
3.2.2.1. The population of Eurytemora affinis 140
3.2.2.2. The population of Acartia spp. 141
3.2.2.3. The dominant copepod populations 144
3.3. Upstream: Quillebeuf-sur-Seine 145
3.3.1. Hydrography and environmental factors 145
3.3.2. Calanoid populations 150
4. Discussion 152
4.1. Longitudinal distribution of dominant calanoid copepods 152
4.1.1. Distribution during the tidal scale 152
4.1.2. Distribution in summer 153
4.2. Sex ratios and behavior of dominant copepod populations 155
5. Conclusion 156
GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 157
1. The life history of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei 158
2. Life history traits: comparison between subtropical/tropical and temperate brackish copepods 162
2.1. Metabolic rates 162
2.2. Development and survival 163
2.3. Reproduction 166
2.4. Tolerance to temperature and salinity variations 171
3. Population dynamics of subtropical/tropical and temperate brackish copepods 173
3.1. Breeding season in calanoid copepods 173
3.2. Vertical behavior in estuarine calanoid copepods 173
3.3. Dominant estuarine calanoid copepods 174
3.4. Estuarine calanoid copepods and climate change 175
4. Conclusion 178
REFERENCES 180
APPENDIX 218
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