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研究生:毛敬豪
研究生(外文):Ching-Hao Mao
論文名稱:以序列為基礎之網路異常事件分析與攻擊行為偵測
論文名稱(外文):Sequence-based Anomaly Detection for Analyzing and Identifying Malicious Network Behavior
指導教授:李漢銘李漢銘引用關係鮑興國鮑興國引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hahn-Ming LeeHsing-Kuo Pao
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:異常偵測相似度警報關聯馬可夫模型
外文關鍵詞:anomaly detectiondissimilarity measurealert correlationMarkov modelIsomap
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:981
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:160
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
相同意圖與目的的惡意行為往往具有不同的序列組合,攻擊行為的變異提高了偵測的困難性。攻擊序列之變異起源於:(1) 具因果關係的關聯的多樣化呈現方式;(2)雜訊的插入以及;(3) 不同行為的交錯穿插。這些問題造成現今入侵偵測系統在捕捉具因果關係之惡意行為時,無法正確關聯並建構出攻擊場景 並產生大量的假警報(false alarm)。此問題更造成對於專家與分析人力的高度需求,以分析入侵偵測系統所發動的警報事件。
在本論文,我們提出一個以序列為基礎之攻擊偵測機制 (Sequence-based Anomaly Detection, SBAD)以找出具因果關係之惡意行為。在這機制中,我們先提出以主機拓樸網路為基礎之行為萃取機制,可再不需任何參數與預先知識下,自動萃取行為序列;接著,透過機率圖型模型-馬可夫鏈模型-對於各個行為序列進行描述,夠過多步驟滑動視窗之二元語法關聯方法(n-step-window-based bi-gram),可容忍不同攻擊於序列呈現時所造成的變異、行為交錯以及長片段行為插入。本研究之核心在於透過最小描述長度(minimal description length)的編碼方式,提出一個新的序列行為距離量測機制,較大行為距離則代表較不相似行為序列,反之亦然。最後,我們透過流形學習(manifold learning)的分析方式,從大量的特徵中萃取具有意義的特徵,並可提供視覺化的介面,並可搭配各種分類與學習演算機制,找出具可疑或是惡意的行為序列。
我們所提出的SBAD具有以下貢獻:(1) 提出不需預先知識以及參數之行為序列萃取機制;(2) 提出一個新的事件序列差異度評估機制,這機制不僅可評估行為串列之間的差異度,更可評估序列與圖形機率模型之間的差異度;(3) 藉由實際的資料驗證,我們所提出的方法可有效率的處理具雜訊、行為穿插以及長片段的插入的行為序列等;(4) 我們的方法的運算時間複雜度與所處理的警報各數呈線性成長的關係;(5) 透過視覺化的機制(Isomap)可在低維度的空間呈現正常與異常行為的分布。
本研究透過公開的資料集、非公開的資料集以及真實世界的資料進行評估所提出的方法。評估的效果顯示所提出的SBAD可找出惡意的行為於巨大量雜訊的環境。而透過圖形結構以及流形學習的呈現,可自然的提供視覺化的結果並讓資安研究或營運人員做進一步的分析。
Malicious behaviors with similar intent or purpose often possess different data sequence patterns which increase the difficulty in malicious behavior identification. These data sequence variations originated from the following three sources: (1) the multiplicity of causal relationships appearing in data sequence patterns, (2) the injection of noises in the attack sequence, and (3) the interwoven of various malicious behaviors. These problems make the current intrusion detection systems perform poorly in capturing the causal relation of malicious behaviors, or precisely correlating their relationship and correctly reconstructing the attack scenario, and consequently producing considerable false alarms. Furthermore, these problems caused the analysis of the abnormal events flagged by the intrusion detection system heavily dependent on the security experts and analytical man-power.

In this thesis, we propose a Sequence-based Anomaly Detection (SBAD) mechanism for identifying malicious behaviors with causal relationship. In this mechanism, we first proposed a behavior thread extraction mechanism based on host topologies which could automatically extract behavior sequence without any parameter configuration and prior knowledge. Then we described each behavior sequence using a probabilistic graph-based model and the “n-step-window-based bi-gram” correlation method, which could tolerate large variances, resulted from different data sequences manifested by different malicious attacks, event interleaving and long interjections. Using these models, we proposed a novel “sequence dissimilarity measure” which leverages the concept of “minimum description length” encoding method to maximize the dissimilarity between different groups of events. A large dissimilarity measure implies different behaviors between the two groups of events, while a small dissimilarity measure implies the opposite meaning. Finally, the “manifold learning analytical method” is applied to the extracting of the meaningful features from a large quantity of features via visualized interfaces which combined either with regular classification methods or with active learning methods to identify suspicious or malicious behavior sequences.

The proposed SBAD has made the following contributions: (1) A proposal for a behavior thread extraction mechanism without any parameter configuration and a priori knowledge; (2) A novel dissimilarity measure for event sequences. Under this measure, not just sequence to sequence, but also sequence to template, or template to template can be compared to each other using a dissimilarity measure; (3) Justified by real case study, an event analyzer which can effectively deal with event sequences in presence of noise, interleaving, interjection (long insertion) or interception contained sequences, sequences with missing alerts, etc; (5) A visualization mechanism (Isomap) which facilitates the visual understanding of the distribution between malicious or normal behavior of event sequences in low dimension space.

We evaluated our proposed methods using different sources of dataset (e.g., public data, semi-public data and real world private data). The evaluation results show that the proposed SBAD method could identify various malicious sequence patterns under abundant noisy environment. Moreover, through the graphical structures and the representation from the “manifold learning method” the visualized result could be provided naturally for the further study or analysis by either security experts or operation personnel.
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Problem Statement and Our Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2 Thesis Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.3 Outlines of the Dissertation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2 Background and Related Work 13
2.1 Network Intrusion Detection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.1 Detection Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.1.2 Intrusion Detection in Network Payload . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.1.3 Intrusion Detection in Web Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Event Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
iiiCONTENTS iv
2.2.1 Graphical Alert Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.2.2 Alert Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.2.3 False Alarm Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.3 Sequence Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3.1 Sequence Alignment and Event Mining . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3.2 Dissimilarity Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3 Sequential-based Anomaly Detection 28
3.1 Correlation Graph Constructor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
3.1.1 Behavior Thread Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.1.2 Behavior Transition Parameter Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . 33
3.2 Manifold Learning-based Causal Relations Builder . . . . . . . . . . 35
3.2.1 Behavior Dissimilarity Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.2.2 Causal Relations Behavior Representation . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2.3 Incremental SBAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.3 Malicious Behavior Identification and Inspectation . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.3.1 Malicious Behavior Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42CONTENTS v
4 Experiment Results 45
4.1 Data Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
4.1.1 iCAST/Acer 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
True Attacks and False Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Attack Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.1.2 DARPA 99 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.1.3 PKDD 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.1.4 CHT2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
4.2 Obfuscated JavaScript Dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.3 Model Parameters and Evaluation Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.3.1 Model Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4.3.2 Evaluation Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.3.3 Sensitivity Analysis and Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
4.4 Effectiveness Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
4.4.1 Identifying Intrusive Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4.4.2 Dealing with non-typical patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.5 Application to Alert Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65CONTENTS vi
4.5.1 Identifying Potential Attack Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.5.2 Malicious Knowledge Base and Indexing . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4.6 Visualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.7 Performance in Real Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.7.1 Efficiency Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.7.2 Real Case Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5 Conclusions and Further Work 78
5.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
5.2 Dissertation Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
5.3 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5.4 Closed Remark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
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