(3.238.173.209) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/17 10:52
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:張寓雯
研究生(外文):Yu-Wen Chang
論文名稱:甘藷馴化過程之適應性演化
論文名稱(外文):Adaptive Evolution of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) in the Process of Domestication
指導教授:黃士穎林冠宏林冠宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Ying HwangKuan-Hung Lin
口試委員:王淑音羅筱鳳黃士穎林冠宏
口試委員(外文):Shu-Yin WangHsiao-Feng LoShih-Ying HwangKuan-Hung Lin
口試日期:2011-06-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:生物科技研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:甘藷含簡單重覆序列之表現序列標籤馴化選汰
外文關鍵詞:sweet potatoEST-SSRdomesticationselection
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:236
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:9
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
摘要
甘藷是世界最重要的糧食作物之一,雖然甘藷已被人類栽植超過5000年,它們的馴化機制仍有待釐清。由於經馴化之物種會受到選汰壓力的作用,因此使用SSR之Ipomoea的EST序列為分子標記,利用GENEPOP等軟體來分析89個甘藷品種在馴化過程(domestication)中是否有基因座受到選汰壓力。結果顯示基因座之分子標記的多型性比例約為97.4%,而栽培種之基因歧異度較野生種高。各遺傳分群檢測與PCoA的結果大致相符合。不同中性檢驗的偵測結果,皆指出栽培過程有受馴化的現象,且5個基因座為受選汰的基因座,並達到顯著性差異。受選汰基因功能屬於一次代謝相關的功能,如調控基因表現,此與多數穀類作物的馴化研究相似,或許這是受栽培作物普遍存在的共同機制。

Abstract
Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) is one of the most important corps in the world. Although cultivated sweet potatoes have been domesticated for more than 5,000 years, their domestication mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate whether 89 different cultivated sweet potatoes have experienced selected stresses during domestication, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were genotyped. Genetic structural analyses in PCoA indicated two separated groups, i.e. wild species and sweet potatoes, consisting with the result of other analyses. Analyses reveal that the polymorphism of sampled loci is about 97.4%. In addition, gene diversity appears much higher in cultivated sweet potatoes than in wild species. We detected five selected loci by different analyses. Our results suggest that domesticated species have experienced selected stresses. Selected loci are related to primary metabolism such as gene expression and photosynthesis. Because selected genes of primary metabolites have been found in cereal crops, combining with our findings in the sweet potatoes, a non-cereal crop, we propose that selection of primary metabolism genes might be common in domestication of crops.

目錄
摘要…………………………….………………………………1
Abstract..………………………………………………………2
壹、前言..…………………………………………….…………4
貳、研究背景…………….……………………………………..7
ㄧ、甘藷………………………………………...……………7
二、馴化……………………………………………………8
三、族群基因體…………………………………………….12
四、簡單重複序列與其之應用…………………………….16
參、研究材料及方法………………………………………….20
ㄧ、樣品採集及DNA抽取…………………………………20
二、甘藷EST-SSRs篩選及專一性primers之設計.…….…22
三、聚合酶連鎖反應(PCR)及EST-SSR genotyping…..…23
四、遺傳參數分析………………………………….………25
五、遺傳結構分析………………………………….………27
六、馴化之分析………………………………….…………31
肆、結果…………………………………………….…………36
ㄧ、遺傳參數分析……………………………….…………36
二、遺傳結構分析……………………………….…………37
三、馴化之分析………………………………….…………40
伍、討論………………………………………….……………43
ㄧ、遺傳參數分析………………………….………………43
二、遺傳結構分析………………………….………………46
三、馴化之分析…………………………….………………50
陸、結論………………………………………….……………56
陸、參考文獻………………………………………….………58
柒、圖表附錄……………………………………………….…78

參考文獻
曾俞槙。2000。應用SSR和SAMPL分子標誌探討多向雜交種甘藷品種之遺傳親源關係。中國文化大學生物科技研究所碩士論文。
Abell BM, Pool MR, Schlenker O, Sinning I, High S. 2004. Signal recognition particle mediates post-translational targeting in eukaryotes. The EMBO Journal 23:2755–2764.
Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ. 1990. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410.
Antao T, Lopes A, Lopes RJ, Beja-Pereira A, Luikart G. 2008. LOSITAN:A workbench to detect molecular adaptation based on an FST-outlier method. BMC Bioinformatics 9:323.
Areshchenkova T, Ganal MW. 2002. Comparative analysis of polymorphism and chromosomal location of tomato microsatellite markers isolated from different sources. Theor Appl Genet 104:229–235.
Ashley MV, Dow BD. 1994. The use of microsatellite analysis in population biology:background, methods and potential applications. EXS 69:185–201.
Austin DF. 1988. The taxonomy, evolution and genetic diversity of sweet potatoes and related wild species. In Gregory P ed. Exploration, maintenance and utilization of sweet potato genetic resources. International Potato Center:27–59.
Audigeos D, Buonamici A, Belkadi L, Rymer P, Boshier D, Scotti-Saintagne C, Vendramin GG, Scotti I. 2010. Aquaporins in the wild:Natural genetic diversity and selective pressure in the PIP gene family in five Neotropical tree species. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:202.
Beaumont MA, Nichols RA. 1996. Evaluating loci for use in the genetic analysis of population structure. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 263:1619–1626.
Brown TA, Jones MK, Powell W, Allaby RG. 2008. The complex origins of domesticated crops in the Fertile Crescent. Trends Ecol Evol 24:103–109.
Buteler MI, Jarret RL, LaBonte DR. 1999. Sequence characterization of microsatellite in diploid and polyploid Ipomoea. Theor Appl Genet 99:123–132.
Ceroni F, Furini S, Giordano E, Cavalcanti S. 2010. Rational design of modular circuits for gene transcription:A test of the bottom-up approach. J Biol Eng 11:14.
Chin WW. 2001. Biosynthesis and secretion of peptide hormones. In Becker KL ed. Principles of Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism 3rd edn:24–35.
Chapman MA, Pashley CH, Wenzler J, Hvala J, Tang S, Knapp SJ, Burke JM. 2008. A genomic scan for selection reveals candidates for genes involved in the evolution of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Plant Cell 20:2931–2945.
Clark RM, Linton E, Messing J, Doebley JF. 2004. Pattern of diversity in the genomic region near the maize domestication gene tb1. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:700–707.
Collins WW, Wilson LG, Arrendell S, Dickey LF. 1987. Genotype x environment interactions in sweet potato yield and quality factors. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 112:579–583.
Connolly AG, Godwin ID, Cooper M, DeLacy IH. 1994. Interpretation of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker data for fingerprinting sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) genotypes. Theor Appl Genet 88:332–336.
Cortese LM, Honig J, Miller C, Bonos SA. 2010. Genetic diversity of twelve switchgrass populations using molecular and morphological markers. Bioenerg Res doi:10.1007/ s12155-010-9078-2.
Crawford KM, Whitney KD. 2010. Population genetic diversity influences colonization success. Molecular Ecology 19:1253–1263.
Crutsinger GM, Collins MD, Fordyce JA, Gompert Z, Nice CC, Sanders NJ. 2006. Plant genotypic diversity predicts community structure and governs an ecosystem process. Science 313:966–968.
Davila J, Sanchez-De-La-Hoz M, Loarce Y, Ferrer E. 1998. The use of random amplified microsatellite polymorphic DNA and coefficients of parentage to determine genetic relationships in barley. Genome 41:477–486.
Dieringer D, Schlötterer C. 2003. Microsatellite analyser (MSA):a platform independent analysis tool for large microsatellite data sets. Molecular Ecology Notes 3:167–169.
Doyle JJ, Doyle JL. 1987. A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf material. Phytochemistry Bulletin 19:11–15.
Doebley JF, Guat BS, Smith BD. 2006. The molecular genetics of crop domestication. Cell 127:1309–1321.
Ercan S, Ertugrul F, Aydin Y, Akfirat-Senturk F, Hasancebi S, Akan K, Mert Z, Bolat N, Yorgancilar O, Uncuoglu-Altinkut A. 2010. An EST-SSR marker linked with yellow rust resistance in wheat. Biol Plant 5:3–7.
Excoffier L, Lischer HEL. 2010. Arlequin suite ver 3.5:a new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Windows. Molecular Ecology Resources 10:564–567.
Feng SP, Li WG, Huang HS, Wang JY, Wu YT. 2009. Development, characterization and cross-species/genera transferability of EST-SSR markers for rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Mol Breed 23:85–97.
Funk C. 2000. Functional analysis of the PsbX protein by deletion of the corresponding gene in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Plant Mol Biol 44:815–827.
Fu YB, Peterson GW. 2010. Characterization of expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeat markers for 17 Linum species. Botany 88:537–543.
Fu YB. 2011. Genetic evidence for early flax domestication with capsular dehiscence. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution doi:10.1007/s10722-010-9650-9.
Garcia-Cerdin JG, Sveshnikov D, Dewer D, Jansson S, Funk C, Schröder WP. 2009. Antisense inhibition of the PsbX protein affects PSII integrity in higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology 50:191–202.
Gao M, Ashu G, Stewart L, Akwe W, Njiti V, Barnes S. 2011. Wx intron variations support an allohexaploid origin of the sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Euphytica 177:111–133.
Gower JC. 1966. Some distance properties of latent root and vector methods in multivariate analysis. Biometrika 53:325–338.
Goodman SJ. 1998. Patterns of extensive genetic differentiation and variation among European harbor seals (Phoca vitulina vitulina) revealed using microsatellite DNA polymorphisms. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15:104–118.
Goudet J. 2001. FSTAT, A program to estimate and test gene diversities and fixation indices (version 2.9.3).
Gomulkiewicz R, Holt RD, Barfield M, Nuismer SL. 2010. Genetics, adaptation, and invasion in harsh environments. Evolutionary Applications 3:97–108.
Available from http://www.unil.ch/izea/softwares/fstat.html
Hu JJ, Nakatani M, Mizuno K, Fujimura T. 2004. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Sweetpotato. Breeding Science 54:177–188.
Hughes AR, Inouye BD, Johnson MTJ, Underwood N, Vellend M. 2008. Ecological consequences of genetic diversity. Ecology Letters 11:609–623.
Holsinger KE, Weir BS. 2009. Genetics in geographically structured populations:defining, estimating and interpreting FST. Nat Rev Genet 10:639–650.
Luscombe NM, Thornton JM. 2002. Protein-DNA interactions:amino acid conservation and the effects of mutations on binding specificity. J Mol Biol 320:991–1009.
Luro FL, Costantino G, Terol J, Argout X, Allario T, Wincker P, Talon M, Ollitrault P, Morillon R. 2008. Transferability of the EST-SSRs developed on Nules Clementine (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tan) to other Citrus species and their effectiveness for genetic mapping. BMC Genomics 9:287 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/9/287
Hartl DL. 2000. A primer of population genetics. Sinauer and Associates Sunderland Massachusetts.
Hamblin MT, Mitchell SE, White GM, Gallego J, Kukatla R, Wing RA, Paterson AH, Kresovich S. 2004. Comparative population genetics of the panicoid grasses:sequence polymorphism, linkage disequilibrium and selection in a diverse sample of sorghum bicolor. Genetics 167:471–483.
Hernandez TP, Miller JC. 1964. Further studies on incompatibility in the sweet potato. Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci 85:426–429.
Hedrick PW. 1983. Genetics of Populations. Jones and Bartlett Boston.
He G, Prakash CS, Jarret RL. 1995. Analysis of genetic diversity in a sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) germplasm collection using DNA amplification fingerprinting. Genome 38:938–945.
Hiltona H, Gauta BS. 1998. Speciation and Domestication in Maize and Its Wild Relatives:Evidence From the Globulin-1 Gene. Genetics 150:863–872.
Hudson RR, Slatkint M, Maddison WP. 1992. Estimation of levels of gene flow from DNA sequence data. Genetics 132:583–589.
Hwang SY, Chou YT, Tseng YT, Lo HF, Li L, Chen LFO. 1999. Determining genetic relationship among elite cultivars used in polycross breeding of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) with RAPD analysis. Chinese Agron J 9:185–194.
Innan H, Kim Y. 2004. Pattern of polymorphism after strong artificial selection in a domestication event. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:10667–10672.
Iwai M, Takahashi Y, Minagawa J. 2008. Molecular remodeling of photosystem II during state transitions in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Cell 20:2177–2189.
Jaccard P. 1908. Nouvelles rescherches sur la distribution florale. Bull Soc Vaud Sci Nat 44:223–270.
Jones A. 1965. A proposed breeding procedure for sweet potato. Crop Sci 5:191–192.
Kalinowski ST. 2005. HP-RARE 1.0:a computer program for performing rarefaction on measures of allelic richness. Molecular Ecology Notes 5:187–189.
Kim JK, Choi SJ, Cho HY, Kim YJ, Lim ST, Kim CJ, Kim EK, Kim HK, Peterson S, Shin DH. 2010. Ipomoea batatas attenuates amyloid β peptide-induced neurotoxicity in ICR mice. J Med Food 14:304–309.
Lavergne S, Molofsky J. 2007. Increased genetic variation and evolutionary potential drive the success of an invasive grass. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104:3883–3888.
Leimu R, Mutikainen P, Koricheva J, Fischer M. 2006. How general are positive relationships between plant population size, fitness and genetic variation? Journal of Ecology 94:942–952.
Li CC. 1995. Population Genetics. The University of Chicago Press Chicago and London.
Liu AZ, Burke JM. 2006. Patterns of nucleotide diversity in wild and cultivated sunflower. Genetics 173:321–330.
Lowman AC, Purugganan MD. 1999. Duplication of the Brassica oleracea APETALA1 floral homeotic gene and the evolution of domesticated cauliflower. The Journal of heredity 90:514–520.
Loebenstein G. 2009. Origin, distribution and economic importance. In Loebenstein G, Thottappilly G eds. The Sweetpotato. Springer Netherlands:9–12.
Messing J, Bharti AK, Karlowski WM, Gundlach H, Kim HR, Yu Y, Wei F, Fuks G, Soderlund CA, Mayer KF, Wing RA. 2004. Sequence composition and genome organization of maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:14349–14354.
Morabia A, Guthold R. 2007. Wilhelm Weinberg's 1913 Large Retrospective Cohort Study:a rediscovery. Am J Epidemiol 165 7:727–733.
Montenegro Á, Avis C, Weaver A. 2008. Modeling the prehistoric arrival of the sweet potato in Polynesia. J Archaeol Sci 35:355–367.
Mulato BM, Möller M, Zucchi MI, Quecini V, Pinheiro JB. 2010. Genetic diversity in soybean germplasm identified by SSR and EST-SSR markers. Pesq agropec bras 45:276–283.
Mutegi E, Sagnard F, Semagn K, Deu M, Muraya M, Kanyenji B, De-Villiers S, Kiambi D, Herselman L, Labuschagne M. 2011. Genetic structure and relationships within and between cultivated and wild sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in Kenya as revealed by microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 122:989–1004.
Myles S, Boyko AR, Owens CL, Brown PJ, Grassi F, Aradhya MK, Prins B, Reynolds A, Chia JM, Ware D, Bustamante CD, Buckler ES. 2011. Genetic structure and domestication history of the grape. PNAS 108:3530.
Nei M. 1987. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. Columbia University Press New York.
Nilsson A, Stys D, Drakenberg T, Spangfort MD, Forsen S, Allen JF. 1997. Phosphorylation controls the three- dimensional structure of plant light-harvesting complex II. Journal of Biological Chemistry 272:18350–18357.
Noll F, May C, Kindl H. 2000. Phospholipid monolayer of plant lipid bodies attacked by phospholipase A2 shows 80 nm holes analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Biophys Chem 86:29–35.
Olsen KM, Purugganan MD. 2002. Molecular Evidence on the Origin and Evolution of Glutinous Rice. Genetics 162:941–950.
Palaisa K, Morgante M, Tingey S, Rafalski A. 2004. Long-range patterns of diversity and linkage disequilibrium surrounding the maize Y1 gene are indicative of an asymmetric selective sweep. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101:9885–9890.
Padham AK, Hopkins MT, Wang TW, McNamara LM, Lo M, Richardson LG, Smith MD, Taylor CA, Thompson JE. 2007. Characterization of a plastid triacylglycerol lipase from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 143:1372–1384.
Park YH, Ahn SG, Choi YM, Oh HJ, Ahn DC, Kim JG, Kang JS, Choi YW, Jeong BR. 2010. Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) EST-derived microsatellite markers and their transferability to strawberry (Fragaria spp.). Scientia Horticulturae 125:733–739.
Pino-Del-Carpio D, Basnet RK, De-Vos RC, Maliepaard C, Visser R, Bonnema G. 2011. The patterns of population differentiation in a Brassica rapa core collection. TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics 6:1105–1118.
Qiu L, Yang C, Tian B, Yang JB, Aizhong L. 2010. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.). BMC Plant Biol 10:278.
Raymond M, Rousset F. 1995. GENEPOP (version 1.2): population genetics software for exact test and ecumenism. Journal of Heredity 86:248–249.
Rice WR. 1989. Analysing tables of statistical tests. Evolution 43:223–225.
Rosenblad MA, Zwieb C, Samuelsson T. 2004. Identification and comparative analysis of components from the signal recognition particle in protozoa and fungi. BMC Genomics 5:5.
Rodriguez-Saona C, Vorsa N, Singh AP, Johnson-Cicalese J, Szendrei Z, Mescher MC, Frost CJ. 2011. Tracing the history of plant traits under domestication in cranberries:potential consequences on anti-herbivore defences. J Exp Bot 62:2633–2644.
Rushton PJ, Somssich IE, Ringler P, Shen QJ. 2010. WRKY transcription factors. Trends in Plant Science 15:247–258.
Saitou N, Nei M. 1987. The neighbor-joining method:a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Molecular Biology and Evolution 4:406–425.
Sapir Y, Moody ML, Brouillette LC, Donovan LA, Rieseberg LH. 2007. Patterns of genetic diversity and candidate genes for ecological divergence in a homoploid hybrid sunflower, Helianthus anomalus. Molecular Ecology 16:5017–5029.
Sang T. 2011. Toward the domestication of lignocellulosic energy crops:Learning from food crop domestication. J Integr Plant Biol. 53:96–104.
Schuenemann D, Gupta S, Persello-Cartieaux F, Klimyuk VI, Jones JD, Nussaume L, Hoffman NE. 1998. A novel signal recognition particle targets light-harvesting proteins to the thylakoid membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95:10312–10316.
Shi LX, Kim SJ, Marchant A, Robinson C, Schröder WP. 1999. Characterisation of the PsbX protein from Photosystem II and light regulation of its gene expression in higher plants. Plant Mol Biol 40:737–744.
Schlötterer C. 2002. A microsatellite-based multilocus screen for the identification of local selective sweeps. Genetics 160:753–763.
Schlötterer C, Dieringer D. 2005. A novel test statistic for the identification of local selective sweeps based on microsatellite gene diversity. In Nurminsky D ed. Landes Bioscience Georgetown Texas.
Schlüter PM, Harris SA. 2006. Analysis of multilocus fingerprinting data sets containing missing data. Mol Ecol Notes 6:569–572.
Schafleitner R, Tincopa LR, Palomino O, Rossel G, Robles RF, Alagon R, Rivera C, Quispe C, Rojas LR, Pacheco JA, Solis J, Cerna D, Kim JY, Hou J, Simon R. 2010. A sweetpotato gene index established by de novo assembly of pyrosequencing and Sanger sequences and mining for gene-based microsatellite markers. BMC Genomics 11:604.
Slatkin M, Voelm L. 1991. FST in a hierarchical island model. Genetics 127:627–629.
Srisuwan S, Sihachakra D, Siljak-Yakovleva S. 2006. The origin and evolution of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Lam.) and its wild relatives through the cytogenetic approaches. Plant Science 171:424–433.
Stinchcombe JR, Hoekstra HE. 2008. Combining population genomics and quantitative genetics:finding the genes underlying ecologically important traits. Heredity 100:158–170.
Tautz D. 1989. Hypervariability of simple sequences as a general source of polymorphic DNA markers. Nucleic Acid Res 17:6463–6471.
Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S. 2007. MEGA4:Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24:1596–1599.
Temnykh S, DeClerck G, Lukashova A, Lipovich L, Cartinhour S, McCouch S. 2001. Computational and experimental analysis of microsatellites in rice (Oryza sativa L.):frequency, length variation, transposon associations, and genetic marker potential. Genome Res 11:1441–1452.
Tenaillon MI, Tiffin PL. 2008. The quest for adaptive evolution:a theoretical challenge in a maze of data. Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:110–115.
van Oosterhout C, Hutchinson WF, Willis DPM, Shipley P. 2004. MICRO_CHECKER:software for identifying and correcting genotyping errors in microsatellite data. Mol Ecol Note 4:535–538.
Vasemagi A, Primmer CR. 2005. Challenges for identifying functionally important genetic variation:the promise of combining complementary research strategies. Mol Ecol 14:3623–3642.
Vernier P, Orkwor G, Dossou RA. 2003. Studies on yam domestication and farmer’s practices in Benin and Nigeria. Outlook Agric 32:35–41.
W S, Deobley J. 1998. Of genes and genomes and the origin of maize. Trends in genetics 14:327–332.
Wang Z, Fang B, Chen J, Zhang X, Luo Z, Huang L, Chen X, Li Y. 2010. De novo assembly and characterization of root transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing and development of cSSR markers in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas). BMC Genomics 24:726.
Wen M, Wang H, Xia Z, Zou M, Lu C, Wang W. 2010. Development of EST-SSR and genomic-SSR markers to assess genetic diversity in Jatropha Curcas L. BMC Research Notes 3:42–49.
Wright S. 1937. The distribution of gene frequencies in populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 23:307–320.
Wright S. 1951. The genetical structure of populations. Annals of Eugenics 15:323–354.
Yin Y, Yasuda K. 2005. Similarity coefficient methods applied to the cell formation problem: a comparative investigation. Computers and Industrial Engineering 48:471–489.
Yu Y, Yuan D, Liang S, Li X, Wang X, Lin Z, Zhang X. 2011. Genome structure of cotton revealed by a genome-wide SSR genetic map constructed from a BC1 population between gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense. BMC Genomics 12:15.
Zalapa JE, Price DL, Kaeppler SM, Tobias CM, Okada M, Casler MD. 2011. Hierarchical classification of switchgrass genotypes using SSR and chloroplast sequences: ecotypes, ploidies, gene pools, and cultivars. Theor Appl Genet 122:805–817.
Zizumbo-Villareal D, Colunga García-Marín P. 2010. Origin of agriculture and plant domestication in West Mesoamerica. Genet Res Crop Evol 57:813–825.
Zhu YY, Chen HR, Fan JH, Wang YY, Li Y, Chen JB, Fan JX, Yang SS, Hu LP, Leung H, Mew TW, Teng PS, Wang ZH, Mundt CC. 2000. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice. Nature 406:718–722.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top