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研究生:王琇宏
研究生(外文):Hsiu-Hung Wang
論文名稱:中國大陸社會抗議之研究—以2001~2009年計程車抗議現象為例
論文名稱(外文):Cabs Demonstration(2001~2009):The Research to The Demonstration in China's Society
指導教授:歐陽新宜歐陽新宜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin-Yi Ou-Yang
口試委員:魏艾高輝
口試日期:2011-01-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中國文化大學
系所名稱:政治學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:220
中文關鍵詞:社會抗議維權上訪特許經營權
外文關鍵詞:social protestrightspetitionfranchises
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
對中共而言,「和諧社會」代表統治的合法性基礎,但當今中國大陸的集體抗議,絕大部分是特定群體因為自身利益受損,走投無路下的維權行動,社會抗議的議題訴求看似繁多,但歸根究底都是源於當前中國大陸本身共產主義的制度特質。中國大陸改革開放是一個社會資源和利益再分配及再調整的過程,也是中國大陸近代以來社會利益格局劇烈的變動時期,在這個過程中,大部分人的利益會受到損失,進而形成龐大的弱勢團體,如下崗失業的工人及進城的農民工等。
然這些下崗失業的工人及農民工,因計程車行業待遇的優沃及市場供給的需要,有70%轉行成為計程車司機,使得計程車數量不斷的擴增影響市場的供需失衡,由於中國共產黨其傳統執政理念裡,有政府萬能的假象,使政府對於計程車開始嚴格管控及限制,形成了許多不合理的問題產生,而政府不但沒有治理市場失衡,反而擴大了市場的失衡,進而威脅到計程車司機的生存,迫使其走向集體罷工抗議。
本篇論文主要以計程車集體罷工抗議文獻分析、社會抗議理論回顧以及中國大陸社會變遷與社會抗議,作為分析的理論基礎,並以中國大陸計程車抗議的背景-工人抗議為例;另藉瞭解中國大陸計程車行業的概況,以及政府如何管制計程車行業,以作為分析計程車集體罷工抗議事件發生原因的主要依據,深入探討中國大陸計程車司機集體罷工抗議的原因,主要為政府管理體制的缺陷、非法計程車破壞市場機能及特許經營權的壟斷。
The slogan of "harmonious society" in Chian relates to it’s ruling. However, the collective protests incidents in China today are originated from those commons who lose their interests, which is contrast to the current communist system. China's ongoing social reform is not only a process of redistribution in social resources, but also of the social strata. During this period, the majority of people lose their interests, which in forming a huge vulnerable groups such as unemployed workers and farmers. To protest in many ways.
Due to the sufficient income and market need in taxi industry, however, 70% of jobless workers and farmers turn to be taxi drivers. Withe the increasing amount of the taxi unbalance supply-demand market. Due to the traditional ruling CCP concept, there is the illusion of omnipotent government, the government begin to strictly control and limit the amount of the taxi. Many irrational problems occurred because of that. The government has not control the market imbalance, but to expand the market imbalance, and thus a threat to the survival of taxi drivers and to force them into collective strike in protest.
The thesis is mainly to analyze of social taxi driver's strike and protest, by using theories of social protest , social change and social protest in China with document availabe publicly. Moreover, the background of taxi drivers' protest in China are used to be the reason for collective protest incidents of the workers. By analyzing the situation in taxi industry of China, and the way government manage the taxi industry. Several key factors .Were found in this thesis, which are: failure of govermental administration, unlawful worker’s competition and inadequate of franchise permission.
第一章 緒論··········································································································································1
 第一節 研究動機與目的·······································································································1
 第二節 研究方法與架構·······································································································5
 第三節 研究範圍與限制·······································································································7
第二章 社會運動與社會抗議·······································································································9
 第一節 中國大陸計程車司機集體罷工抗議事件列舉···········································9
 第二節 中國大陸計程車抗議文獻探討·······································································16
 第三節 社會抗議理論回顧································································································23
 第四節 中國大陸社會變遷與社會抗議·······································································37
第三章 中國大陸計程車抗議背景分析-工人抗議之例··············································53
 第一節 中國大陸工人抗議歷史過程············································································54
 第二節 近年中國大陸工人抗議現況············································································58
 第三節 中國大陸工人抗議原因分析············································································73
第四章 中國大陸計程車行業概況···························································································87
 第一節 中國大陸計程車概述···························································································87
 第二節 計程車行業與勞工關係概況············································································96
 第三節 政府管制下的計程車發展·············································································· 100
第五章 2007~2009 年中國大陸計程車司機抗議原因之探討···································· 115
 第一節 中國大陸計程車司機抗議現況···································································· 115
 第二節 計程車司機抗議之深層因素分析······························································· 127
 第三節 政府管理體制缺陷產生的弊端及後果····················································· 137
第六章 結論····································································································································· 148
 第一節 研究發現················································································································· 148
 第二節 後續研究················································································································· 151
參考文獻··············································································································································· 154
附錄1 中華人民共合國勞動合同法····················································································· 161
附錄2 城市出租汽車管理辦法······························································································· 176
附錄3 市政公用事業特許經營管理辦法··········································································· 182
附錄4 北京市人民政府關於加強出租汽車行業管理的意見··································· 187
附錄5 中國大陸2001~2009 年計程車抗議事件概況表·············································· 193

表目錄

表2-1 2004~2009 年大陸計程車抗議相關論文··································································16
表4-1 2008 年北京市計程車司機月工資收入情況··························································98
表4-2 中國大陸部分重點城市運價一覽表······································································· 111
表4-3 1996~2008 年中國部分重點城市計程車數量················································· 113
表5-1 2001~2009 年中國大陸計程車罷工抗議統計概況··········································· 115
表5-2 2008 年11 月份中國大陸計程車罷工抗議統計概況······································ 120

圖目錄

圖1-1 研究架構圖····························································································································06
圖2-1 麥克亞當:關於社會運動形成的一般古典模型·················································39
圖2-2 1949 年後中國大陸所有制結構變化情形·······························································45
圖2-3 勞資矛盾與社會衝突的惡性循環···············································································48
圖3-1 史美舍的加值理論模型···································································································85
圖4-1 承包模式下的產業結構···································································································92
圖4-2 掛靠制經營模式··················································································································94
圖4-3 個體模式·································································································································96
圖4-4 計程車市場的准入模式································································································ 112
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李靜,2008,<出租車監管問題及對策研究>,《內蒙古科技與經濟》,期8(4月),頁317-319。
汪亞軍,2009,<政府管制下的出租車行業問題分析>,《重慶工商大學學報》,卷26,期5(10月),頁45-49。
肖平容,2010,<維權者被侵權的困境與進路新探-基於被開除的工會主席的思考>,《內江師範學院學報》,卷25,期3(3月),頁37-41。
林元霄,2005,<對我國出租車行業實行政府管制合理性的探討>,《貴州商業高等專科學校學報》,卷18,期3(9月),頁29-31。
姜愛林,2009a,<出租車集體罷工問題與出租車行業制度建設研究(上)>,《重慶工學院學報(社會科學)》,卷23,期5(5月),頁59-65。
,2009b,<我國城市出租車集體罷工的成因與消彌策略>,《上海城市管理職業技術學院學報》,(2月),頁59-64。
,2009c,<出租車集體罷工的基本表現、主要原因與解決對策研究>,《寧波廣播電視大學學報》,卷7,期1(3月),頁106-110。
胥曉鶯與郭娟,2005,<工會,遊說並拒絕著>,《商務週刊》,期15,頁72-75。
徐賁,2008,<改革開放:合法性危機的消解與再形成>,《當代中國研究》,期3,頁34-45。
高大慧,2010,<北京市出租汽車行業貫徹「勞動合同法」相關問題探析>,《中國職工教育》,期2(總第195期),頁18-21。
高嬡娣,2006,<社會主義和諧勞動關係理論概述>,《工會理論研究》,期5,頁31-34。
康曉光與韓恒,2005,<分類控制:當前中國大陸國家與社會關係研究>,《社會學研究》,期6,頁73-89。
張樹義,2006,<出租車行業何以走向壟斷>,《中國改革》,期6,頁31-32。
張靜,2001,<「法團主義」模式下的工會角色>,《工會理論與實踐》,期1,頁1-6。
曹旭,2009,<由出租車管理爭議論行政壟斷>,《法制與社會》,期27(9月),頁236。
曹峰旗與田芝健,2007,<工會維權的復歸與維權困境的政治學透視>,《江西行政學院學報》,卷9,期2(4月),頁31-33。
郭於華,2002,<「弱者的武器」與「隱藏的文本」-研究農民反抗的底層視角>,《讀書》,期7,頁11-18。
郭愛萍,2008,<勞資關係與工會維權的困境分析>,《求實》,期12,頁36-38。
郭銳欣與張鵬飛,2009,<進入管制與黑車現象>,《世界經濟》,期3,頁59-71。
陳明藝,2006,<國外計程車市場規制研究綜述及其啟示>,《外國經濟與管理》,期8,頁41。
陳晉勝與張濤,2006,<群體性事件性質、原因的辯證分析>,《中共山西省委黨校學報》,卷26,期3,頁40-41。
陳海秋,2009,<中國出租車行業存在的問題研究>,《鄭州航空工業管理學院學報》,卷27,期2(4月),頁15-20。
閆素珍,2006,<淺談出租車行業政府管制改革>,《山東經濟管理幹部學院學報》,期2(4月),頁88-89。
湛彥輝,2005,<大連日企員工罷工事件調查>,《鳳凰週刊》,期34(總第203期),頁28-31。
湯雄,2005,<中國黑車調查>,《報告文學》,期2,頁71-85。
馮麗,2009,<城市出租車行業經營模式的政府規制問題>,《合作經濟與科技》,期371(12月),頁26-27。
監文慧,2010,<論我國出租車行業的勞動關系衝突問題-以罷工事件為例>,《經營管理者》,期5,頁200。
劉炎迅等,2008,<勞工神聖-出租車司機維權的努力>,《中國新聞週刊》,期43(11月),頁22-28。
劉英麗,2005,<今年告別下崗職工>,《中國新聞週刊》,期10(3月),頁18-19。
劉能,2009,<社會運動理論:範式變遷及其與中國當代社會研究現場的相關度>,《江蘇行政學院學報》,期46(4月),頁76-82。
謝岳與曹開雄,2009,<集體行動理論化系譜:從社會運動理論到抗爭政治理論>,《上海交通大學學報(哲學社會科學版)》,卷17,期67(3月),頁13-20。
(三)博碩士論文:
王小斌,2006,《我國出租車行業政府管制研究》,中國大陸:廈門大學研究所碩士論文。
石德蓮,2007,《出租車行業政府管制的行政法問題研究》,中國大陸:中國政法大學研究所碩士論文。
朱婷婷,2008,《出租車行業的政府規制研究》,中國大陸:華東政法大學研究所碩士論文。
張金錢,2007,《出租車行業政府管制研究-以北京市為例》,中國大陸:中國政法大學研究所碩士論文。
黃鳳嗚,2007,《出租車行業特許經營權研究》,中國大陸:中國政法大學研究所碩士論文。
楊開煌,1987,《中共文件註釋之方法學探討》,台北:政治大學東亞研究所。
裴衣軍,2004,<轉型期中國大陸工會的維權困境與對策研究>,中國大陸:西安建築科技大學研究所碩士論文。
劉益,2009,《出租車特許經營權法律屬性研究》,中國大陸:西南政法大學研究所碩士論文。
(四)研究報告
由晨立等,2009,《數量管制政策之惡-從溫州模式看計程車業癥結》,計程車行業管制系列研究報告,中國大陸:傳知行社會經濟研究所。
(五)報紙
王濛,「借鑒上海模式 南京計程車兩年內全部公車公營」,東方早報,2005年7月29日8版。
王克勤,「北京計程車業壟斷黑幕」,中國經濟時報,2002年12月6,1-4版。
王克勤,「溫州計程車業個體化改革調查」,中國經濟時報,2003 年3 月26 日系列報導。
浩洋,「TAXIIN 北京」,人民日報(海外版),2006年3月17日12版。
中國證卷報,2006年5月15日第A09版。

二、英文文獻
(一)專書
Aldon Morris, and Carol M Mueller.1992. Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven:Yale University Press.
Dane, Francis C. 1990. Research Methods. Pacific Grove: California brooks Co.
Doug McAdam, Sidney Tarrow, and Charles Tilly. 2001, Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCarthy, John D, and Zald, Mayer N. 1973. The Trend of Social Movements in America: Profession alization and Resource Mobilization. Morristown, N.J: General Learning Corporation.
McAdam, Doug.1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency 1934 - 1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1983. Struggling to Reform: Social Movement and Policy Change during Cycles of Protest. Ithaca, N.Y.: Western Societies Program, Cornell University.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. Power in Movement. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collectice Action and Politics. London: Cambridge University.
Smelser. 1962. Neil Theory of Collective Behavior .New York:Free Press.
Ted Robert Gurr.1970. Why Men Rebel. Princeton:Princeton University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 2004. Social Movements 1768~2004. London:Paradigm Publishers.
(二)期刊
Doug McAdam,Sidney Tarrow,and Charles Tilly.2001.“Dynamics of Contention."Cambridge Cambridge University Press. pp.7-8.
Goldstone, Jack A.2001.“Toward A Fourth Generation of Revolutionary Theory"Annual Review of Political Science.pp.87-139.
Goldstone, Jack A. 1980.“Theories of Revolution:The Third Generation."World Politics.pp.425-453.
McCarthy, John D, and Zald, Mayer N. 1977.“Resource Mobilization and Social Movements:A Partial Theory."American Journal of Sociology.pp.1212-1241.
Lipsky, Michael. 1968.“Protest as a Political Resource.”American Political Science Review 62.pp.1144-1158.
Tilly, Charles. 1994.“Social Movement as Historically Specific Clusters of Political Performances.”Berkeley Journal of Sociology 38.pp.1-30.
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