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研究生:方信凱
研究生(外文):Fang,Shinkai
論文名稱:墨西哥移民對美國經濟與財政的影響
論文名稱(外文):Las influencias de los inmigrantes mexicanos a la economia y las finanzas de EE.UU
指導教授:何國世何國世引用關係
口試委員:蔡淑惠陳小雀
口試日期:2011-06-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:西班牙語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:墨西哥移民與美國勞力市場美國福利制度
外文關鍵詞:U.S. Welfare systemMexican immigrants and the U.S. labor market
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1848年,美墨戰爭後,墨西哥與美國簽訂「瓜達路佩伊達爾戈條約」,墨西哥失去了廣大的領土,而美國得到現今境內的加利福尼亞、內華達、猶他、亞利桑那、科羅拉多和新墨西哥等州的土地。因為美墨兩國之間先天地理上的因素和經濟上的差距,墨西哥移民的問題一直是美墨關係上受到關注的焦點。
從歷年來數次規模較大的墨西哥移民潮的時空背景中,我們可以發現移民的原因對兩國而言,既是一種經濟現象,也是兩國勞動力的供需關係。
然而,美國因為大量湧入的墨西哥移民,對於國內的勞動市場和國家的福利支出上產生一定的影響,也引起了國內人民對於本國勞工的失業率與薪資問題及國家財政支出是否增加等議題產生高度的關注。
因此,本論文首先探討為何墨西哥移民對美國的特殊性與移民的歷史進程,墨西哥移民的社會經濟情況與職業結構及在美國經濟同化的程度,進而分析墨西哥移民對美國的勞動市場的衝擊和社會福利與補助的使用情況和對國內各級政府財政收支的影響。
研究結果發現,墨西哥移民對於美國勞動市場裡各種族群與教育程度的勞工之薪資水準都有負面的影響,其中受到影響最大的是高中肄業程度的本土勞工和先前入境的早期西語裔移民。在就業市場與失業率上受到墨西哥移民影響較大的是先前入境的早期西語裔移民。墨西哥移民家庭由於社會經濟狀況的劣勢,造成貧窮的比例高於美國本土家庭和其他移民家庭,因此使用福利與補助的程度最高,也因為平均所繳納的稅金最低,對於美國財政所造成的負擔最重。而美墨兩國之間經濟水準存在的差異以及雙方勞力供需的必要性是造成墨西哥勞動力大量移入美國的主因。

Mexico and the U.S. signed the “Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo” after the Mexican-American War in 1848, upon which Mexico lost a huge part of its territory, while the U.S. acquired the land of such states as California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico, etc. Due to the inherent geographical relation, as well as the economic disparity between Mexico and the U.S., the issue of Mexican immigration has always been a focus of concern in the Mexican-American relationship.
From the spatio-temporal background of the several larger-scale mass Mexican migration waves in the U.S. history , we could find that migration arises both as an economic phenomenon and the labor supply and demand relationship between the two countries.
However, the large influx of mexican immigrants has influenced the domestic labor market and the national welfare expenditure of the U.S. to some extent. It also attracted great attention and discussion of the U.S. people on some issues, such as were the phenomenons of higher unemployment rate with the decline of salary levels of native workers, and the increase of national fiscal expenditure caused by mexican immigrants?
Therefore, this thesis discussed firstly why the mexican immigrants are so special to the U.S. and the historical process of mexican immigration, as well as the socio-economic situation and occupational structure of mexican immigrants and the level of their economic assimilation in the U.S. economy. Then, this thesis analized the impact of mexican immigrants on the U.S. labor market, their use of the social welfare and assistance and influence on the fiscal expenditure of the various level of U.S. government (Federal.State and Local government) respectively were studied.
The result of this research shows that mexican immigrants had negative influence on the salary levels of workers in all ethnic groups and all educational levels of the U.S. labor market. The most affected groups were the native high school dropout workers and the earlier entrant of spanish-speaking immigrants. In terms of the unemployment rate and employment opportunity, the group most harmed by mexican immigrants were the earlier entrant of spanish-speaking immigrants. Due to disadvantages of the mexican immigrant families in the socio-economic status, their poverty ratio was higher than U.S. families and other immigrant families, and therefore, they also had the highest level of use in social welfare and assistance. In addition, since they had paid the lowest tax on average, they constituted the heaviest burden on the U.S. finance. The disparity between the U.S. and Mexican economies and the phenomenon of labor supply and demand of both countries are the major reasons for the large influx of mexican workforce into the U.S.

第一章 緒論 1

第一節 研究背景與動機 1

第二節 研究目的 3

第三節 研究內容 4

第四節 研究方法 5

第五節 相關理論 6

第六節 研究假設 9

第七節 文獻回顧 10

第八節 研究架構與流程 12

第二章 墨西哥人移民美國的歷史背景與區域分佈 15

第一節 墨西哥人移民美國的歷史背景 15

第二節 墨西哥人移民美國的歷史進程 19

第三節 墨西哥移民在美國的區域分佈 32

第四節 本章小結 42

第三章 墨西哥移民對美國經濟造成的影響 45

第一節 不同時期墨西哥移民對美國經濟影響的探討 45

第二節 墨西哥移民對美國經濟的同化作用及影響 50

第三節 墨西哥勞動力外移的因素及移民的勞動力分佈結構 58

第四節 墨西哥移民對美國勞工薪資水準的影響 64

第五節 墨西哥移民對美國就業市場的影響 67

第六節 本章小結 71

第四章 墨西哥移民對美國財政造成的影響 73

第一節 墨西哥移民的經濟與社會情況以及對社會福利的使用情形 73

第二節 墨西哥移民對美國財政所造成的影響 82

第三節 美國福利制度對墨西哥移民的磁鐵效應 91

第四節 本章小結 97

第五章 結論 99

參考文獻 104



參考文獻:

一 中文文獻:

白鳳森(1998),<美拉關係中的移民問題>,《拉丁美洲研究》,第3期,
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----(2009b),<美國墨西哥移民的人口效應評析>,《史學期刊》,第2期,
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----(2009c),<美國墨西哥移民的行業分佈與職業結構>,《拉丁美洲研究》,
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袁方(1990),《社會科學百科辭典》,北京:北京中國廣播電視出版社。

孫晨旭(2009),<美國的墨西哥移民問題—以20世紀中期美墨季節工計畫為中心的考察>,《拉丁美洲研究》,第3期,頁56-62。

馮峰、(2008),<拉美裔移民對美國大選的影響及美國移民政策的調整>,《拉丁美洲研究》,第6期,頁10-14。

梁茂信(1996),<外來移民對美國經濟和就業市場的歷史影響—兼論中美學者
的觀點>,《世界歷史》,第3期,頁25-33。

張穎(1999),<墨西哥移民與墨美兩國國際勞工市場的發展>,《拉丁美洲研
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劉軍(2003),<移民對美國經濟競爭力的貢獻>,《財經問題研究》,第5期,頁82-86。

歐陽貞誠(2008),<美國學者關於當代外來移民對經濟和勞動力市場影響的研
究述評>,《世界歷史》,第6期,頁126-137。

錢皓(2002),<美國西裔移民研究:古巴、墨西哥移民歷程及雙重認同>,《中國社會科學出版社》,北京市。

韓琦(2007),<墨西哥奇跡背後的六大隱憂>,《人民論壇》,第22期,頁17-18。

徐勃毓(2004)。《美國墨西哥裔移民發展之研究》。淡江大學拉丁美洲研究所碩士論文,新北市。

許伯羽(2007)。《美國墨西哥移民之研究》。中國文化大學美國研究所碩士論
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二、英文文獻﹕

Altonji, J. G. and D. Card.(1991) “The Effects of Immigration on the Labor Market Outcomes of Less-Skilled Natives, ” pp 201-234. in J. Abowd and R. Freeman(editors), Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market. University Of Chicago Press.

Bean, Frank D. and Bell-Rose Stephanie Editors (1999), Immigration and Opportunity: Race, Ethnicity, and Employment in the United States. New York Russell Sage Foundation.

Bean, Frank D. and Gillian Stevens(2003), American's Newcomers and the Dynamics of Diversity New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Borjas, G. J.(1990), Friends or Strangers: The Impact of Immigrants on the U.S. Economy. Basic Books.

----(1994),“The Economics of Immigration”, Journal of Economic Literature﹕32(4),. pp. 1667–1717

----(1999), Heaven's Door: Immigration Policy and the American Economy , Princeton University Press..

Clark, Rebecca L. (1994), The Cost of Providing Public Assistance and Education to Immigrants, Urban Institute, Washington D.C..


Dávila, Alberto and Marie T Mora.(2002), “English Proficiency and Immigrants Entrepreneurial Income” . U.S Journal of Texas University.

Driscoll, Barbara A.(1999), The Tracks North: The Railroad Bracero Program of World War II, University of Texas Press.

Fairchild, T. Stephen and Simpson, B. Nicole.(2004), “ Mexican Migration to the United States Pacific Northwest”, Population Research and Policy Review, vol.23.No3, pp.219-234.

García, Alam M. (2002), The Mexican Americans. Westport Greenwood Press.

Grossman, Jean B. (1982), “The Substitutability of Natives and Immigrants in Production. ” The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 64, No. 4 .Nov., pp.596-603

Hamermesh, Daniel S. and Bean, Frank D. ed (1998) Help or Hindrance?:The Economics Implication of Immigration for African Americans. New York Press,

Hustamante, Jorge A., Reyholds, Clark W. and O jeda, Raúl A.H, ed,(1992) U.S-Mexico Relations: Labor Market Interdependence. Stanford University Press.

Desipio, Louis and Rodolfo O. de la Garza, (1998) Making Americans, Remaking America﹕Immigration and Immigration Policy. Westview Press..

Massey, Douglas S. and Capoferro Chiara. (2005) The new geography of Mexican Immigration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Massey, Douglas S., Durand, Jorge and Malone, Nolan J. (2002), Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican Immigrations in an Era of Economic Integration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

McCarthy, Kevin F., and Vernez George.(1998), Immigration in a Changing Economy﹕California's Experience--Question and Answers. RAND.


Miller, Willard E. and Miller, Ruby M. (2002), United States Immigration: A Reference Handbook, Santa Barbara, California. ABC-CLIO, Inc.

Mines, R., and P. L. Martin (1984), “Immigrant Workers and the California Citrus Industry”, Industrial Relations 23(1),pp.139-149

Muller, T, and T.J. Espenshade (1985), The Fourth Wave: California's Newest Immigrants , Washington D.C. The Urban Institute.

Parrado , Emilio A.and Massey, Douglas S. (1999),, “The New Era of Mexican Migration to the United States”, Journal of American History.vol.86, pp518-536.

Simon, Julian L. (1989), The Economic Consequences of Immigration. Blackwell Publishers.

Simon, J.L, S. Moore, and R. Sullivan (1993), “The Effect of Immigration on Aggregate Native Unemployment﹕An Across-City Estimation”. Journal of Labor Research ,vol.14,No.3. pp. 299-316

Singer, Audrey. (2004) , The Rise of New Immigration Gateways. The bookings institution.

Singer, Audrey and. Massey, Douglas S. (1995) , “New Estimates of Undocumented Mexican Migration and the Probability of Apprehension”. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, pp.203-213

Smith, James P., and Barry Edmonston (1997), The New Americans:Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

----(1998), “The Immigration Debate:Studies on the Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.

Shulman, Steven. editor.(2004), The Impact of Immigration on African Americans . Transaction Publisher.


Winegarden, C.R., and L.B. Khor(1991), “Undocumented Immigration and unemployment of U.S. Youth and Mnority Workers﹕Econometric Evidence”. Review of Economic Statistics, 73(1)pp. 105-112


三、網路資料

Borjas, G. J.(1999), “Immigration and Welfare Magnet” , National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 6813 , http://www.nber.org/papers/w6813

----(2004), Increasing the Supply of Labor through Immigration: Measuring the Impact on Native-born Workers. Center for Immigration Studies. http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/back504.pdf

Camarota, Steven A.(2001), Immigration From Mexico: Assessing the impact on the United States. , Center for Immigration Studies. http://www.cis.org/articles/2001/mexico/mexico.pdf

Congressional Budget Office(2005), The Role of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market, http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/68xx/doc6853/11-10-Immigration.pdf,2005

Padilla, Maria A(2006). Impact of the Mexican Immigrant Labor Force in the United States Economy. http://www1.app state.edu/~stefanov/student2002. pdf

Passel, Jeffery S.(2006), “The Size and Characteristics of the Unauthorized Population in the U.S.” Research Report, http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/61.pdf

Passel, Jeffery S. and Suro, Roberto.(2005), Rise, Peak, and Decline: Trends in U.S. Immigration 1992-2004. http://pewhiapanic.org/file/reports/53.pdf.

Pew Hispanic Center.(2009), Hispanics of Mexican Origin in the United States, 2007. http://pewhispanic.org/files/factsheets/49.pdf.

U.S. Census Bureau(2001), Profile of the Foreign-Born Population in the United States, 2000. Washington D.C. Government Printing Office. http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-206.pdf


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