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研究生:洪慈蓮
研究生(外文):Hung, Tzulien
論文名稱:台灣青少年在創意語言和髒話的詞彙使用之性別差異
論文名稱(外文):Gender Difference In Lexical Forms – A Study Of Adolescents’ Use Of Lexical Forms In Creative Language And Swearing In Taiwan
指導教授:賴春燕賴春燕引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lai, Chunyen
口試委員:黃麗蓉陳春美
口試委員(外文):Huang, LijungChen, Chunmei
口試日期:2012-07-04
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:性別差異創意語言髒話詞彙
外文關鍵詞:gender differencecreative languageswearinglexical forms
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詞彙的選擇是語言使用的一環,人們會在不同的情況使用不同的詞彙。有些詞彙在日常生活中頻繁地被使用,而青少年時常創造或使用不同的詞彙來表達它們的文化、態度和生活經驗。本研究旨在探討台灣青少年男女在詞彙使用上是否有所差異,研究變項為創意語言和髒話的使用。因此,青少年使用創意詞彙和髒話在對話中的性別差異是本研究的重點。
本研究的對象為18位國中學生,男女各9位。語料的收集是以錄音的方式進行。在收集的語料中,創意語言和髒話是本研究要分析的語言特徵,藉著分析男女使用詞彙的頻率、比例和類型來探討男女在口語表現上的差異。
研究結果顯示男女青少年在創意語言和髒話的使用上有顯著差異。青少年語言特徵的詞彙分析反映男女在語言使用上有不同的態度;女性傾向使用標準和有禮貌的語言形式,而男性使用較多直接和未經修飾的語言。研究結果證實男性和女性在對話中有不同的語言表現。
Lexical or word choice is a level of language use, which can offer speakers appropriate expressions for use in different contexts. Some words or phrases are commonly invented and used by young people to express their cultural or mental attitudes and life experiences in casual speech. The aim of this study is to understand if there is any difference in female and male usage of certain linguistic forms -- the choice of lexical forms in language creativity and swearing in mixed-gender interactions.
The participants of the study are 18 native Mandarin Chinese speakers, including 9 boys and 9 girls. The linguistic variables involved in this study are lexical forms used for language creativity and swearing. The lexical forms were collected in naturalistic and non-elicited environments, and the audio-recording with the electrical equipment was the main way used to collect the data. The study finds that males and females differ in the use of language creativity and swearing. Males use more creative forms and dirty words than females do in frequency, percentage and type as a whole.
The findings show that males and females tend to use creative and swearing language differently in informal mixed-gender interactions. Thus, it can be concluded that gender does influence language use. The analyses of the linguistic features between male speech and female speech reflect that women and men have internalized different norms for conversational interactions. Females tend to produce language which is standard and polite, while male speech appears to display the vernacular and aggressive styles with its unmitigated directives. The findings of this study support the established claim proposed by the researchers, such as Labov (1972), Maltz and Borker (1982), Lakoff (1975), Trugill (1972), Holmes (2008) and Coates (1993) to the effect that women and men talk differently by using different forms of their styles in conversations.
Acknowledgements i
English Abstract iii
Chinese Abstract iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and Background 1
1.2 Research Questions 4
1.3 Organization of the Thesis 4

Chapter 2 Literature Review 6
2.1 Gender Difference in Language Use 6
2.1.1 Standard versus Vernacular Forms 7
2.1.2 Competitive versus Cooperative Styles 9
2.1.3 Features of Women’s Language 11
2.1.4 Gender and Topics in Conversations 13
2.2 Explanations of Gender Difference in Verbal Interactions 15
2.2.1 The Dominance Approach 15
2.2.2 The Difference Approach 17
2.2.2.1 The Gender Separation Theory 19
2.2.2.2 The Miscommunication Model 21
2.2.3 Other Explanations 23
2.2.3.1 Power and Solidarity 23
2.2.3.2 Social Networks 24
2.2.3.3 Face and Power 24
2.2.3.4 Covert Prestige versus Overt Prestige 25
2.3 Lexical Difference in Men’s and Women’s Speech 26
2.3.1 Creative Language Use 27
2.3.2 Swear Word Usage 29
2.4 The Age-grading Phenomenon in Language Use 30
2.5 Adolescence and Language Influences of Peer Groups 32

Chapter 3 Methodology 35
3.1 Participants 35
3.2 Data Collection and Methods 36
3.3 Variables 36
3.3.1 Language Creativity 36
3.3.2 Swearing 38
3.4 Data Analysis 39

Chapter 4 Findings and Discussions 40
4.1 Overall Description 40
4.2 Language Creativity and Gender 43
4.2.1 Zhuyin Phonetic Symbols and Gender 46
4.2.2 New Coinages and Gender 49
4.2.3 Transliteration and Gender 51
4.2.4 Taiwanese-accented Mandarin and Gender 53
4.3 Swearing and Gender 55
4.4 Results and Discussions 58

Chapter 5 Conclusion 65
5.1 Major Findings 65
5.2 Significance of the Study 69
5.3 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Studies 69

References 71
Appendix 78
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