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研究生:洪書瑛
研究生(外文):Hung, Shu-Ying
論文名稱:薩爾曼‧魯西迪《午夜之子》在諷刺文學中「法」與「非法」思想之研究
論文名稱(外文):Dharma/Adharma in the Satire of Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children
指導教授:海柏海柏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Haseltine, Patricia
口試委員:吳蕚洲楊薇雲
口試委員(外文):Wu, E-ChouYang, Wei-Yun
口試日期:2011-07-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:89
中文關鍵詞:薩爾曼 • 魯西迪午夜之子諷刺文學印度教非法
外文關鍵詞:Salman RushdieMidnight’s ChildrensatireHinduismdharmaadharma
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論文名稱:薩爾曼•魯西迪《午夜之子》在諷刺文學中「法」與「非法」思想之
研究
校院所組別:靜宜大學英國語文學系碩士班文學組
畢業時間:九十九學年度第二學期
摘要別:碩士論文摘要
研究生:洪書瑛
指導教授:海柏博士
關鍵字:薩爾曼•魯西迪、午夜之子、諷刺文學、印度教、法、非法

論文摘要

本論文研究薩爾曼•魯西迪《午夜之子》此書從二十世紀印度歷史發展上在諷刺文學中所呈現印度教「法」與「非法」思想之問題。作者魯西迪揉合昔日與現今歷史的結果,體現印度社會政治現象的多樣性所產生了現代性與印度教「法」相關的傳統思想之間的衝突。以傳統印度教來說,「法」思想概指一種無所不在的規範,用以維持神祇所創造萬物的秩序與福利;但在印度政府宣布獨立後,傳統梵思想中自我認同的觀念受到現代性多重作用的威脅而有所變化。此觀念上的差異,透過人民因不願實行或者偏離該社會上種姓之間責任的結果,進而呼應了「非法」。從這部小說探討種種「非法」的情節之下,除了有損「法」思想的可取性之外,更甚至批判印度教傳統觀念在二十世紀印度社會中的延續性。由此,《午夜之子》在諷刺文學中帶給讀者關於社會傳統思想觀念上的變動,以及自我價值認同上的掙扎,並且呈現作者魯西迪面對印度教傳統價值觀未來的發展,在現代印度社會是種悲觀的看法。
第一章討論主角沙令•史奈其自傳式書寫上的不可靠性與思想殘片中,不僅雜揉了印度歷史、神話故事,以及作者魯西迪本身對家園的記憶,此書也同時成為二十世紀的諷刺小說作品之一,揭示在印度獨立後的社會保護印度教「法」則與價值觀的問題。第二章的重點在於藉由諷刺文學上的傳統來分析主角沙令他歪曲歷史的目的與處置現實的手法。本章節所探討種姓「法」制的內涵與規範以及與自我認同觀念之間的關係,作為比較小說中「非法」的情況。第三章論述女性本身在與「法」思想以及家庭生活、婚姻、母性各方面所展現的特質之間的衝突;書中「非法」的呈現由此突顯女性在二十世紀的印度社會為維護傳統的重要性與價值的地位。第四章解析男性在書中「非法」之情節,從他們的角色定位到與傳統印度教的家庭關係觀念之間的分歧,特別是分析作者魯西迪如何利用母子關係諷刺印度首相英迪拉•甘地與她小兒子假借國家緊急狀態的法令之名所實行政治上的陰謀。結論是印度教中「法」思想在獨立後的印度社會下發展,透過諷刺文學的研究,其最初維持萬物秩序的可取性在面臨人口過多、財產、宗教衝突和語言差異議題上的考驗。


Thesis Title: Dharma/Adharma in the Satire of Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children
Graduate Program of the Department of English Language, Literature and Linguistics,
Providence University
99th School Year
An Abstract of a Thesis for the Degree of Master of Arts
Graduate: Ally Shu-Ying Hung
Advisor: Prof. Patricia Haseltine, Ph. D.
Key words: Salman Rushdie, Midnight’s Children, satire, Hinduism, dharma, adharma

Abstract
This thesis reads the problem of Hindu dharma/adharma in twentieth-century India as addressed in the satire of Salman Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children. Rushdie’s juxtaposition of the past and the present embodies a multiplicity of social-political phenomena that bring up the conflict between modernity and the traditional mores associated with Hindu dharma. In Hindu tradition, dharma means the omnipresent law that sustains the order and welfare of God’s creation; however, in post-independent India the traditional Brahman concepts of self-identity are threatened by the effects of modernity. The incongruity of self-identity echoes in adharma through people’s non-performance or deviations from their caste obligations. The situations of adharma in this novel undermine the desirability of dharma and even criticize the continuation of Hindu traditions in twentieth-century India. Thereby, the satire of Midnight’s Children leads readers into a perception of social transitions and a struggle for self-identity, and present Rushdie’s gloomy outlook on the future of the traditional Hindu values in the modern India.
Chapter One discusses the autobiographic narration of Saleem Sinai in which the unreliability and fragmentation not only construct a hybridization of Indian history, Hindu mythology, and Rushdie’s memory of homeland, but also make the novel a twentieth-century fictional satire revealing the problem of maintaining Hindu dharmic principles and values in post-independent India. Chapter Two focuses on the analysis of satirical conventions in terms of Saleem’s distortion of history and his disposal of reality. It explores the relationship between caste dharma and the conception of self-identity in contrast to the instances of adharma in the novel. Chapter Three investigates the female struggles with the rules of dharma and proper womanhood in domesticity, marriage, and motherhood; the presentation of adharma thereby highlights women’s importance and value for preserving Indian traditions in twentieth-century India. Chapter Four analyzes the situations of adharma in male characters’ divergence from the traditional Hindu conception of family relationship; in particular, how Rushdie deals with the mother-son relationships and satirizes the political scheme of the State of the Emergency carried out by the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and her son. In conclusion, through the approach of satire the Hindu dharma is questioned by its desirability of maintaining the order in the post-independent Indian society on the issues of overpopulation, property, religious conflicts and language differences.


















Table of Contents
Chinese Abstract ………………………………………………………………i
English Abstract ………………………………………………………………ii
Acknowledgements ………………………………………………………………iv
Chapter One: Introduction ………………………………………1
The Value of Midnight’s Children ………………2
The Narrative Structure ………………………………………8
Analysis of the Novel ……………………………………10
Chapter Two: Satirical Reading of History and Hindu Dharma ……13
“Medley” in the Narration …………………………………15
The Disposal of Reality ………………………………………18
Dharma/Adharma …………………………22
Chapter Three: The Problem of Womanhood ………………………32
Domesticity in Dharma………………………………32
The Reverend Naseem Aziz ……………………………34
The Devoted Amina Sinai ………………………………38
The Almighty Padma ………………………………………42
The Widowed Indira Gandhi …………………45
The Remaking of Female Identity …………………47
Chapter Four: Adharma in Family Relationships ……54
Saleem Sinai’s Problem of Dharma ……54
Dharma in the State of the Emergency…58
The Impaired Male Identity ……………………………………63
Saleem’s Adharma as Shiva’s Dharma ………………………67
The Problem of Nationality and Homeland …………70
Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………74
Works Cited ……………………………………………………………………78

Works Cited

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