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研究生:廖彬仲
研究生(外文):Pin-Chun Liao
論文名稱:探討滲透壓與濕熱-磷酸化處理對山藥澱粉理化性質與抗性澱粉含量的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of osmotic pressure and simultaneous heat-moistureand phosphorylation treatments on the physicochemical properties and resistant starch content of yam starch
指導教授:王俊權王俊權引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiun-Chuang R. Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:山藥滲透壓處理濕熱-磷酸化處理高直鏈玉米澱粉抗性澱粉升糖指數澱粉理化性質
外文關鍵詞:Glycemic index.Yam starchSimultaneous heat-moisture and phosphorylation tResistant starchHigh amylose corn starchOsmotic pressure treatmentPhysicochemical properties
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抗性澱粉泛指在小腸中無法被分解吸收的澱粉,能低膽固醇血症,增加益生菌以及減少結腸疾病的發生機率。本研究以山藥澱粉(TN1、TN2)測試樣品,以高直鏈玉米澱粉(Hylon VII)為對照組,探討滲透壓(OPT)與濕熱-磷酸化(HMPT)修飾處理後,三種樣品的抗性澱粉含量及理化性質的變化。結果顯示山藥澱粉經滲透壓處理後,澱粉粒徑增加,由平均25.55-27.88 μm增加至34.66~46.38 μm,且澱粉顆粒表面隨著處理時間增加變為粗糙,但對高直鏈玉米澱粉則無影響。濕熱-磷酸化處理後,澱粉顆粒表面仍維持光滑的平面。澱粉經滲透壓與濕熱-磷酸化處理後,以X-ray繞射儀分析發現山藥澱粉的相對結晶度均增加,且濕熱-磷酸化處理導致三種澱粉的結晶型態均由B-Type轉變為A-Type。此外,滲透壓處理能提高澱粉的糊化溫度(TO、TP、TC)及降低糊化熱焓值。然而濕熱-磷酸化處理卻是降低糊化初溫(To),但可微幅提高糊化尖溫(Tp)及降低糊化熱焓值。兩種處理方式(OPT &; HMPT)均能顯著降低三種澱粉的糊化黏度,同時黏度破裂值和最終黏度亦減少,尤其是濕熱-磷酸化處理能使澱粉黏度喪失。在50-95℃的加熱條件下,高直鏈玉米澱粉的黏度均無法測得,可能是在此加熱溫度未達糊化溫度所導致。澱粉的膨潤力及溶解度亦會隨著修飾時間延長而變小。滲透壓處理的澱粉膠強度(TN1、TN2及Hylon VII)隨著儲存時間的延長而降低。滲透壓處及與濕熱-磷酸化處理能有效地增加抗性澱粉含量。將二種不同的處理方法之澱粉,測試澱粉的升糖指數發現,隨著修飾時間延長,升糖指數有減少的趨勢。
Resistant starch is defined as the sum of starch and products of starch degradation not absorbed in the small intestine. Many researches indicate that increases the dietary intake of resistant starch could lowers hypercholesterolemia, increases the growth of probiotics, and prevent the colonic disease. Two yam starches (TN1 and TN2) and high amylose corn starch (Hylon VII) were used as tested samples in this study to investigate the effect of two modified treatments, osmotic pressure treatment (OPT) and simultaneous heat-moisture phosphorylation treatment (HMPT), on the changes of the physicochemical properties and production of resistant starch. The results showed that the average particle size of yam starch increased from 25.55-27.88 μm to 34.66-46.38 μm as the starches were modified by OPT. The surface of each starch granules became rougher with the increase of treatment time but not observed in HMPT modified starches. According the X-ray pattern, the relative crystallinity of yam starch increased in both OPT and HMPT modified starches as compared with unmodified starches. Moreover, the pattern of starch crystal structure was changed from B pattern to A pattern. Meanwhile, both OPT and HMPT treatments significantly increased the gelatinization temperature but decreased the enthalpy, except the onset temperature of tested starches in the HMPT treatment. Both OPT and HMPT treatments significantly decreased the pasting viscosity as compared with unmodified samples, particularly, the pasting viscosity of yam starch was not detectable in the HMPT modified starches. Under the regular heating cycle (50-95 ℃) of pasting measurement, the pasting viscosity of high amylose corn starch were undetectable which could be below its gelatinization temperature. The swelling power and solubility of yam and high amylose corn starches decreased with the increase of modified time of both OPT and HMPT. The gel strength of OPT modified TN2 yam starch decreased but not found in TN1 starch. The results also indicated that both OPT and HMPT treatments could increase the content of resistant starch significantly. Moreover, the glycemic index of both OPT and HMPT modified starches decreased with the increase of modified time.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
第ㄧ章、前言 1
第二章、文獻回顧 2
一、山藥 2
(一)山藥簡介 2
(二)山藥的成分 2
二、澱粉 4
(一)直鏈澱粉與支鏈澱粉 4
(二)澱粉顆粒結構 4
(三)山藥澱粉的特性 11
(四)澱粉消化率 13
三、抗性澱粉 14
(一)簡介 14
(二)定義 14
(三)抗性澱粉的種類 15
(四)抗性澱粉的結構與形成 15
(五)影響抗性澱粉生成的因素 21
(六)抗性澱粉的功能性質 26
四、修飾澱粉 30
(一)滲透壓處理 30
(二)濕熱及磷酸化同時處理 33
(三)其他修飾方法對澱粉性質的變化 36
五、澱粉的理化性質 41
(一)成糊性質 41
(二)糊化性質 45
(三)膨潤力與溶解度 47
(四)膠強度分析 47
(五)結晶型態 49
(六)磷含量 49
六、升糖指數 51
(一)定義 51
(二)測定方法 51
(三)升糖負荷值 52
(四)升糖指數與升糖負荷 52
第三章、實驗目的 53
第四章、材料與方法 54
一、計畫架構圖 54
二、原料 55
三、澱粉萃取 55
四、修飾澱粉的製備 56
(一)滲透壓處理 56
(二)濕熱及磷酸化同時處理 56
五、直鏈澱粉含量 57
六、抗性澱粉 58
七、澱粉的理化性質 59
(一)澱粉顆粒大小 59
(二)微細結構 60
(三) X-ray繞射分析圖譜 60
(四)糊化性質 61
(五)成糊性質 62
(六)膨潤力與溶解度 62
(七)膠強度分析 63
八、升糖指數估計值 63
九、結構分析 65
十、統計分析 65
第五章、結果與討論 66
一、直鏈澱粉含量 66
二、抗性澱粉含量 68
三、澱粉的顆粒大小與微細結構 73
四、結晶結構 74
五、糊化性質 84
六、成糊性質 90
七、膨潤力及溶解度 95
八、膠強度 99
九、升糖指數 102
十、澱粉結構 108
第六章、結論 112
參考文獻 113
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