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研究生:蘇瑋琛
研究生(外文):Wei-chen Su
論文名稱:滲透壓與濕熱-磷酸化處理對綠豆澱粉及菱角澱粉理化性質與抗性澱粉含量的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effect of osmotic pressure and simultaneous heat-moisture and phosphorylation treatments on the resistant starch content and physicochemical properties of mung bean and water caltrop starches
指導教授:王俊權王俊權引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiun-Chuang R. Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:靜宜大學
系所名稱:食品營養研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:營養學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:115
中文關鍵詞:濕熱-磷酸化處理滲透壓處理澱粉理化性質抗性澱粉升糖指數
外文關鍵詞:Simultaneous heat-moisture and phosphorylation tResistant starchPhysicochemical properties of starchEstimated glycemic indexOsmotic pressure treatment
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聯合國世界農糧組織將抗性澱粉(resistant starch, RS)定義為「健康者小腸中無法吸收的澱粉及其降解產物,該物質具有增進人體內益生菌生長,減少結腸疾病發生,降低血液中膽固醇含量、減少人體熱量攝取進而控制體重等功能」。本研究的目的是探討滲透壓處理與濕熱-磷酸化處理對澱粉理化性質及抗性澱粉含量的變化,本試驗利用綠豆、菱角及高直鏈玉米澱粉(Hylon VII)分別進行處理15- 60 min。結果顯示三種樣品在經由滲透壓處理與濕熱-磷酸化處理後RS含量皆隨處理時間增加而增加。滲透壓處理與濕熱-磷酸化處理皆使澱粉的糊化溫度提高(TO、TP、TC)及降低糊化熱焓值及糊化黏度。分析澱粉的膨潤力及溶解度發現,三種澱粉的膨潤力及溶解度均隨修飾時間增加而變小。滲透壓處理會使綠豆與菱角澱粉膠硬度下降,但濕熱-磷酸化處理則會使綠豆澱粉膠上升。以X-ray繞射儀分析顯示滲透壓處理與濕熱-磷酸化處理皆使澱粉的結晶度提高,且高直鏈玉米澱粉結晶型態由B type轉變為Ca type。在澱粉平均粒徑的變化顯示,三種樣品經濕熱-磷酸化處理後,澱粉的粒徑均呈現下降的趨勢,然而滲透壓處理對澱粉顆粒大小則沒有顯著的影響。另外經由滲透壓處理後,綠豆澱粉表面出現凹陷。澱粉經滲透壓處理與濕熱-磷酸化處理後,其升糖指數隨著修飾時間延長而呈降低趨勢。
The resistant starch is defined by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as “The small intestine of healthy people can not be absorbing and degradation products which can enhance the probiotics, decreasing the functional colonic disease and reducing calorie ingestion and then control the body weight”. The purpose of this study were to investigate the effect of osmotic pressure treatment (OPT) and simultaneous heat-moisture phosphorylation treatment (HMPT) on the physicochemical properties, resistant starch content and estimated glycemic index of high amylase starches. Two local starches, including mung bean and water caltrop, and high amylase corn starch (Hylon VII) were treated by both treatment methods for 15-60 min, respectively, in this experiment. The results indicated that the content of resistant starch increased with the increase of processing time in all three tested samples. The treatment of OPT and HMPT promoted the gelatinization temperature (To, Tp, Tc) but decreased the gelatinization enthalpy and pasting viscosity of tested starches. The results also observed that the swelling power and solubility decreased as the treatment time increased on three tested starches. The hardness of mung bean and water caltrop starch gel decreased as those starches were treated by OPT but increased in HMPT mung bean gel. According to X-ray diffraction, the relative crystallinity of starch increased as the starches were treated by OPT and HMPT. The crystal type of Hylon VII corn starch was changed from B-type to Ca-type after OPT treatment. The changes of particle size were observed that the particle size of three tested starches decreased with the increase of HMPT processing time. Moreover, the surface of mung bean starch particle appeared concavity when mung bean starch was processed by OPT. The estimated glycemic index of all processed starches by OPT and HMPT decreased as compared with rice starch
摘要.......... I
Abstract…. II
目錄…….. IV
表目錄….. VI
圖目錄….. VIII
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
壹、綠豆及菱角介紹 3
一、綠豆簡介 3
二、菱角簡介 4
貳、澱粉的理化性質 7
一、澱粉的結構 7
1.直鏈澱粉 7
2.支鏈澱粉 8
二、澱粉顆粒的結晶特性 12
三、澱粉的糊化作用 14
四、澱粉的回凝 17
五、澱粉的消化作用 18
參、抗性澱粉 20
一、抗性澱粉之分類 23
二、抗性澱粉的形成機制 31
三、抗性澱粉的製備方法 32
1.滲透壓處理 (osmotic-pressure treatment, OPT) 32
2.濕熱處理 (heat-moisture treatment, HMT) 33
3.磷酸化處理 (phosphorylation treatment) 35
4.濕熱─磷酸化處理(simultaneous heat-moisture and phosphorylation treatments, HMPT) 37
第三章 實驗目的 45
第四章 材料與方法 47
第五章 結果與討論 55
一、澱粉處理 47
二、抗性澱粉含量 55
三、直鏈澱粉含量 56
四、熱焓性質 59
五、成糊特性 62
六、膨潤力與溶解度 69
七、膠強度分析 73
八、X-ray繞射分析 77
九、升醣指數估計值 87
第六章 結論 92
參考文獻.. 93
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