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研究生:塗千慧
研究生(外文):Chien-Hui Tu
論文名稱:家庭情緒脈絡與注意力缺失/過動症兒童情緒調節的關係探討
論文名稱(外文):The Relationship Between Family Emotional Context and Emotion Regulation in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
指導教授:徐儷瑜徐儷瑜引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Yu Shyu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:注意力缺失/過動症兒童情緒性情緒調節家庭情緒脈絡
外文關鍵詞:attention deficit hyperactivity disorderemotionalityemotion regulationfamily emotional context
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研究背景與目的
注意力缺失/過動症兒童(Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD)的情緒調節困難在近期的研究中逐漸受到關切,然而造成其情緒調節困難的原因,不全然是因為注意力不足、過動/衝動症狀所致,根據Morris、Silk、Myers 及 Robinson(2007)所提出的「家庭情緒脈絡對兒童情緒調節及適應問題影響之三角模式」(the tripartite model of the impact of the family on children’s emotion regulation and adjustment),家庭亦透過三種途徑影響兒童的情緒調節,即觀察學習(observation)、情緒的教養方式(parenting practices)及家庭情緒氣氛(emotional climate of the family),本研究將延續Morris等人(2007)的觀點,試圖瞭解家庭情緒脈絡對注意力缺失/過動症兒童情緒調節的影響。此外,過去研究多著重在整體情緒的調節上,但「分化情緒理論」(Differential Emotion Theory)主張不同情緒各有不同機制,且「情緒調節單一模式」(unitary model of emotion regulation),主張應同時考量情緒性與情緒調節,故本研究擬探討家庭情緒脈絡對ADHD兒童之不同情緒之情緒性、情緒調節能力的影響。
研究方法
研究對象為120位6-12歲兒童(女生17位、男生103位)和他們的父母為研究對象,其中60位為ADHD 兒童、60位為控制組兒童。每位兒童皆須觀看父母衝突影片引發負向情緒,然後回答情緒調節相關問題、採用的情緒調節策略等,並填寫「父母依附量表」。父母則須填寫「簡式情緒問卷」、「家庭情緒自我表達問卷」、「父母後設情緒理念量表」、「夫妻衝突策略量表」。以單因子多變量變異數分析,比較兩組兒童不同情緒的情緒性、情緒調節之差異及比較兩組兒童家庭情緒脈絡的差異性。再以皮爾森積差相關、階層迴歸分析法探討家庭情緒脈絡與兒童情緒性、情緒調節之間的關係。
研究結果
ADHD兒童的過動/衝動症狀確實能預測其情緒性、情緒調節能力,然家庭情緒脈絡亦有其重要性,對不同情緒之情緒性、情緒調節具有不同的預測力。情緒性的部分,情緒的教養方式為主要預測變項,其中,「摒除型」情緒教養可預測生氣及正向情緒的情緒性;「失控型」可預測生氣、害怕、難過情緒的情緒性。情緒調節的部分,則可透過觀察學習、情緒的教養方式、家庭情緒氣氛等變項來預測,其中,「正向情緒表達」可預測生氣的情緒調節;「教導型」情緒教養可預測生氣、害怕、難過的情緒調節;「與母親的依附關係」可預測難過的情緒調節。
研究結論
家庭情緒脈絡與ADHD兒童的情緒性、情緒調節具有顯著關聯性,其中尤以情緒教養方式對之預測力最甚,又「失控型教養方式」對情緒性的預測力最大、「教導型教養方式」對情緒調節的預測力最顯著。此可提供未來進行親職教育的參考,將介入目標著重在提昇父母對情緒的覺察力、教導性,以協助父母增加本身情緒調節能力,同時教導父母如何與兒童討論情緒。
Background and Research Objectives
In recent years, there has been considerable interest in emotional dysregulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The deficit in emotion regulation, however, is not caused only by the symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. According to the tripartite model of the impact of the family on children’s emotion regulation and adjustment proposed by Morris, Silk, Myers and Robinson (2007), the family affects the development of children’s emotion regulation in three ways: (a) observation, (b) parenting practices, and (c) emotional climate of the family. In addition, past studies mainly focus on the global emotion regulation, while the differential emotion theory (DET) suggests that individual emotion has different mechanisms, and the unitary model of emotion regulation argues that emotionality and emotion regulation should be considered simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of family emotional contexts on different emotion’s emotionality and emotion regulation in children with ADHD.
Research Design
The participants in this study were 120 children (17 girls and 103 boys), ranging in age from 6 to 12 years, and their parents. Child participants were divided into two groups: a group of 60 children with ADHD, and a comparison group of 60 children without ADHD. During the study, each child watched a videotape of interparental conflict evoking negative emotion, and after the videotape, the child was asked to answer questions on emotion regulation, emotion regulation strategies, and to complete the Inventory of Parent Attachment. Parents were also asked to complete a series of questionnaires (i.e., the Emotion Questionnaire, the Self Expressiveness in Family Questionnaire, the Parental Meta-Emotion Philosophy Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale). Data collected from questionnaires were analyzed by one-way multivariate analysis of variance to compare emotionality and emotion regulation of two groups, and the differences of their family emotional contexts. Data were also analyzed by Pearson’s Correlation and hierarchical multiple regression analysis to explore the relationship between family emotional contexts and emotion regulation in children with ADHD.
Research Results
Symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity in children with ADHD were proven to be highly associated with their emotionality and emotion regulation. Moreover, family emotional contexts could predict emotion’s emotionality and emotion regulation in different ways. In terms of emotionality, parenting practices were the major predictors. Parents’ philosophy of emotion-dismissing predicted anger and positive emotionality, and parents’ emphasized philosophy of motion-dysfunction predicted anger, fear, and sad emotionality. In addition, emotion regulation could be predicted by observation, parenting practices, and emotional climate of the family. Parental positive expressiveness predicted the emotion regulation of anger, while parent’s philosophy of emotion-coaching predicted anger, fear, and sad emotion regulation. Finally, the child-mother attachment could predict sad emotion regulation.
Discussion
The significant finding of this research was the relationship between family emotional contexts, emotionality and emotion regulation in children with ADHD. Particularly parenting practices were the major predictors. Furthermore, parents’ philosophy of emotion-dismissing was an important predictor of emotionality, and parents’ philosophy of emotion-coaching was an essential predictor of emotion regulation. This finding offers a model for parental education, and helps increase parents’ emotional awareness and guidance, in order to improve their own emotion regulation, as well as teach them how to discuss emotion with their children for the promotion of emotion awareness, guidance, and increases parents own ability of emotion regulation, as well as helps to discuss emotions with their children.
目次 VIII
表次 X
圖次 XI
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻探討 3
第一節 情緒調節 3
壹、情緒調節的定義 3
貳、情緒調節的測量 6
第二節 ADHD兒童情緒調節的實證研究 10
壹、ADHD兒童的情緒調節困難 10
貳、ADHD兒童的情緒調節相關因素探討 10
參、ADHD兒童情緒調節困難的原因 11
肆、不同情緒之區分探討 14
第三節 家庭情緒脈絡對兒童情緒調節的影響 16
壹、 觀察學習 17
貳、 情緒的教養方式 17
參、 家庭情緒氣氛 20
肆、 影響情緒調節社會化的父母特徵和兒童特徵 21
第四節 研究目的與假設 23
第三章 研究方法 25
第一節 研究對象 25
第二節 研究工具 27
第三節 研究步驟與程序 32
第四節 統計分析 33
第四章 研究結果 34
第一節 兩組兒童情緒調節能力的差異性 34
第二節 兩組兒童家庭情緒脈絡的差異性 39
第三節 家庭情緒脈絡與兒童情緒性、情緒調節的關聯性 41
第四節 ADHD症狀、家庭情緒脈絡對情緒調節的預測 45
第五節 研究結果整理 51
第五章 討論 54
第一節 兒童的情緒調節能力 54
第二節 兒童的家庭情緒脈絡 58
第三節 家庭情緒脈絡與兒童情緒性、情緒調節的關係 60
第四節 研究貢獻 62
第五節 研究限制 63
參考文獻 65
附錄一、父母問卷 72
附錄二、兒童問卷 82
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