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研究生:許鼎正
研究生(外文):Ting-Cheng Hsu
論文名稱:國際航空法下航空保安之近期發展
論文名稱(外文):Recent Development of Aviation Security Under International Air Law
指導教授:程家瑞程家瑞引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chia-Jui Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東吳大學
系所名稱:法律學系
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:323
中文關鍵詞:航空運輸安全航空保安非法干擾行為滋擾性行為芝加哥公約附件17北京公約全球航空保安查核計畫國際民航組織國際航空運輸協會
外文關鍵詞:Air Transport SecurityAviation SecurityActs of Unlawful InterferenceDisruptive Passenger BehaviourAnnex 17 to Chicago ConventionBeijing ConventionUniversal Security Audit ProgrammeICAOIATA
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隨著航空產業發展,非法干擾行為和滋擾行為頻繁。為避免航空犯罪造成重大影響和損害,「航空運輸安全」已不限於「飛航安全」,亦包括「航空保安」的概念,並於理論上產生相關國際和國內法規範以及衍生出相關原理原則;另一方面在實務操作上,國際社會亦試圖對航空保安措施形成統一化具拘束力的操作機制。當所形成的法規範、原理原則抑或是操作機制產生爭議或無法抑制新的航空犯罪類型時,則會再對航空保安的概念、法規範、原理原則及操作機制為修正,使航空保安即在此五部分不斷循環相互影響下亦趨健全。
911恐怖攻擊事件為近期航空保安發展的重要分野。過往航空保安議題、措施及立法主要圍繞在防止劫持、破壞航空器、機場和飛行導航系統設備的攻擊、對飛行中之航空器使用人工便攜式防空系統;911恐怖攻擊事件後,新的航空犯罪行為類型,例如將民用航空器做為攻擊武器、使用民用航空器來散播生化、核子武器或物質、使用生化或核子武器造成損害以及威脅行使這些犯罪行為造成恐慌等,造成了重大傷亡並突顯出既有國際航空保安規範的闕漏。因此,國家及國際組織除了發佈聲明和決議強烈譴責並呼籲正視這類犯罪行為對航空安全所造成的影響外,亦召開會議討論制定新的法律文件及修正既有公約規範來制約這些新的航空犯罪類型。例如2010年9月由ICAO於北京所召開的外交部長會議上通過兩項新的航空法律文件:《北京公約》、《北京議定書》,試圖填補此一闕漏。然而,保安工作於實際操作面上仍存在著諸多困難,且各國間基於維護國家主權、擔心濫用和政治壓力操作之立場,對於新法律文件的制定採取保留的態度。另外,在全力推行航空保安的過程中,除以抑制非法干擾行為為目標外,亦有基本權法益、成本、便利性等因素須衡量,並從中找出均衡點。
故除對航空保安之概念、特性和範圍為介紹外,可由法規範和措施兩方面為介紹。於法源部份,首先本文先就相關國際公約為整理;其次,對近期國際組織決議及航空先進國家之法律、判例及措施進行探討;最後,就航空保安的國際及國內法源中歸納出原理原則。另一方面,就保安措施實務操作為介紹,並對實務操作上所產生的爭議作出分析。透過國際航空保安法規範和措施的比較,本文於第柒章為結論和建議,盼能使臺灣正視此一問題並與國際趨勢接軌。
The aviation industry, which is getting well-developed, is accompanied with acts of unlawful interference and disruptive passenger behaviors. In order to avoid a significant impact attributed by aviation crime on it, ‘air transport safety’ not only covers ‘aviation safety’ but also includes the concept of ‘aviation security’. And on one hand, this concept generates international and national laws as well as principles in theory. On the other hand, international community also intends to build a uniform and binding operative mechanism in practical operation of aviation security measures. When the existing laws, principles or mechanisms disputes or can’t suppress the new types of aviation crime international community will improve them. Then aviation security would be getting perfect through the circulation of these five parts.

911 attacks happened on September 11, 2001, which present a watershed for the recent development of aviation security. In the past, the issues, measures and regulations about aviation security focused on preventing the hijacking, sabotage, destruction of aircraft, airport and flight navigation equipment and MANPADS. After 911 attacks, the new types of aviation crime, such as using the civil aircraft as weapon, releasing or discharging from an aircraft in service any BCN weapon or material, using against or on board an aircraft in service any BCN weapon or explosive, radioactive, or similar substances and making threat to commit aforementioned offences, not only cause injuries and deaths but also highlight the vacancies and defects of the existing international aviation security law standard. Thus, in order to knock down the aviation criminal acts, countries and international organizations issue declarations and resolutions to strongly condemn these acts and invoke people to pay attention to the passive impact attributed to these criminal acts. At the same time, they also have a discussion on the necessity of a new international air law instrument or amending the existing international conventions for aviation security. Under the auspices of the ICAO, a diplomatic conference in Beijing, held from 30 August to 10 September, 2010, which was composed of representatives from 77 States adopted two international air law instruments: the Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation and the Protocol Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft.

There are, however, still lots of difficulties in practice. Based on the consideration ofstate sovereignty, fear of abuse and intervention of political pressures, countries keep a conservative attitude towards enacting a new law instrument. Besides, we also have to widely measure other factors and find the equilibrium of them in the process of implementing aviation security, like the fundamental right, cost and convenience.

Therefore, the thesis not only describes the concept, characteristic and scope of aviation security but also introduces the regulations and measures. On one hand, the thesis introduces some relevant international conventions first. Second, it discusses the recent resolutions of international organizations and the domestic laws, cases and measures of countries. Third, it generalizes principles of aviation security under international air law from international and national sources. On the other hand, the thesis introduces the practical mechanism of the security measures, and makes an analysis of the disputes and controversy from it. Finally, this thesis does a general conclusion in Chapter VII through a comparison of regulations and measures among states and international organizations. This thesis is expecting that Taiwan could focus on aviation security and follow the steps of international trends.
謝辭 I
中文提要 III
英文提要 IV
目次 VI
中文細目 VII
英文細目 XII
表目錄 XVIII
圖目錄 XIX
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機和目的 1
第二節 研究範圍和架構 4
第三節 研究方法和限制 7
第四節 文獻探討 8
第五節 預期成果 11
第貳章 航空保安之概念、特性及其適用範圍 13
第一節 前言 13
第一項 航空器發展與法規範之產生 18
第二項 航空犯罪 19
第二節 航空保安之歷史發展 20
第一項 20世紀初期至1968年 20
第二項 1968年至1994年 22
第三項 1994年至今 24
第三節 航空保安之概念 25
第一項 航空運輸安全 26
第二項 飛航安全與航空保安 27
第一款 安全與保安 27
第二款 飛航安全與航空保安 28
第三項 航空保安之概念 29
第四節 航空保安之特性 31
第一項 複雜性 31
第二項 重要性 31
第三項 系統性 33
第五節 航空保安之適用範圍 33
第一項 非法干擾行為 33
第一款 非法干擾行為之定義 33
第二款 非法干擾行為之性質 35
第三款 非法干擾行為與國際恐怖主義 37
第一目 國際恐怖主義行為 38
第二目 非法干擾行為類型 39
第二項 滋擾性行為 42
第一款 案例:U.S. v. Cordova 43
第二款 滋擾行為產生之原因 43
第三款 滋擾行為之法律規範及措施 45
第一目 國際民航組織預防和懲治滋擾旅客模範法 45
第二目 黑名單和禁飛名單 47
第參章 航空保安之法源 49
第一節 前言 49
第二節 國際法源 50
第一項 國際條約 51
第一款 全球性多邊條約 51
第一目 1944年《芝加哥公約》及附件17 51
第二目 1963年《東京公約》 58
第三目 1970年《海牙公約》 62
第四目 1971年《蒙特利爾公約》 66
第五目 1988年《蒙特利爾補充議定書》 70
第六目 1991年《蒙特利爾公約》 71
第七目 2010年《北京公約》及《北京議定書》 73
第二款 區域性多邊條約-1977年《歐洲反恐公約》 83
第三款 次區域性多邊條約 85
第一目 拉丁美洲次區域 86
1.《加勒比航空安全和保安審查系統協定》 86
第二目 亞洲次區域 86
1. 東南亞國協 86
2.《柬埔寨王國、老撾人民民主共和國、緬甸聯邦和越南社會主義共和國的民航總局對確立次區域航空運輸合作協定》 88
第二項 國際習慣法及一般法律原則 89
第一款 或引渡或起訴原則 89
第二款 普遍管轄權原則 89
第三項 國際組織之決議與規範 89
第一款 聯合國決議 89
第一目 大會決議 89
第二目 安理會決議 91
第二款 國際民航組織 93
第三款 歐洲民用航空會議 95
第四項 G7-1978年《波昂宣言》 96
第三節 國內法源 97
第一項 大陸法系-歐盟 98
第二項 英美普通法系 112
第一款 美國 112
第二款 英國 124
第三款 加拿大 127
第三項 亞洲國家 134
第一款 中華人民共和國 134
第二款 日本 136
第三款 臺灣 139
第肆章 國際航空法下航空保安之基本原則 145
第一節 前言 145
第二節 航空保安之基本原則 145
第一項 刑事管轄權原則 145
第一款 屬人管轄原則 146
第二款 屬地管轄原則 147
第三款 條約下有限的普遍管轄原則 148
第四款 航空保安的管轄權原則 149
第二項 引渡起訴之原則 150
第一款 國際法引渡原則 150
第二款 國際航空法起訴引渡原則 150
第三項 國家權利和義務 151
第四項 其他原則 152
第伍章 國際航空法下保安操作之機制 155
第一節 前言 155
第二節 航空保安系統 156
第一項 地面保安 157
第二項 航空器保安 158
第三項 飛行保安 160
第三節 ICAO航空保安計畫 161
第一項 保安手冊 161
第二項 全球航空保安查核計畫 162
第一款 背景沿革及查核範圍 162
第二款 查核流程 163
第三款 保密性與部分透明化 164
第四款 查核人員的選任、訓練和認證 165
第三項 實施支助和發展計畫 165
第四節 IATA的航空保安措施 167
第一項 資料交換 167
第二項 保安管理系統 168
第三項 一站式保安 169
第四項 安全貨運原則 170
第五節 航空保安科技 172
第一項 生物識別技術 172
第二項 無線射頻識別技術 172
第陸章 航空保安之近期發展及待解問題 175
第一節 前言 175
第二節 肩射飛彈 175
第三節 空中安全官及武裝駕駛之設置 182
第一項 空中安全官 182
第二項 武裝駕駛 186
第三項 以空中安全官為主力 188
第四節 航空保安和人性尊嚴、生命權之法益衝突 189
第一項 航空保安與生命權-2006年德國反恐立法的違憲 189
第一款 案件事實 189
第二款 聯邦憲法法院判決理由 190
第三款 航空保安和基本權保障的權衡 192
第二項 航空保安與人性尊嚴 192
第一款 機場安檢 193
第二款 旅客資料之保護 195
第五節 航空保安措施的高成本及不便 196
第六節 航空保安規範和措施之整合 197
第柒章 結論與建議 199
參考文獻及書目 209
附件
一、書籍
(一)中文部份 (依作者姓氏排序)
丘宏達, 「現代國際法」,臺北:三民書局股份有限公司,2006年9月修訂二版一刷。
洪德旋,「劫機之防制與立法」,臺北:東大圖書公司,1988年8月。
栗林忠男 著,袁曉利 譯,「航空犯罪與國際法」,法律出版社,1988年8月。
賀元驊 主編,「航空保安原理」,中國民航出版社,2009年2月。
趙維田,「論三個反劫機公約」,群眾出版社,1985年2月。
趙維田,「國際航空法」,社會科學文獻出版社,2000年。
(二)英文部份 (依作者姓氏排序)
Abeyratne, R. I. R., Aviation Security: Legal and Regulatory Aspects, Ashgate Publishing Company (1998).
Abeyratne, R.I.R., Aviation Security Law, Springer, (2010).
Alexander, Yonah & Sochor, Eugene (eds.), Aerial Piracy and Aviation Security, Springer (October 29, 1990).
Brownlie, Ian, Principles of Public International Law, Oxford University Press (2008).
Cheng, Chia-Jui & Mendes de Leon, P. (eds.), The Highways of Air and Outer Space over Asia, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, London/Boston/Dordrecht (1992).
Cheng, Chia-Jui (ed.), The Use of Airspace and Outer Space for ail Mankind in the 2lst Century, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International (1995).
Cheng, Chia-Jui (ed.), The Use of Air and Outerspace Cooperation and Competition, Kluwer Law International, the Hague/London/Boston (1998).
Davies, Karen, Understanding European Union Law, Routledge (3rd Edition 2007).
Diederiks-Verschoor, I. H., An Introduction to Air Law, Kluwer Law International (7th edition October 2001).
Garner, Bryan A. (ed.), Black's Law Dictionary (8th edition 2004).
Huang, Jiefang, Aviation safety through the rule of law: ICAO's mechanisms and practices, The Netherland: Kluwer Law International (2009).
Halsbury's Laws of England (4th ed. reissue 1990).
Milde, Michael, International Air Law and ICAO, Eleven International Publishing (April 2008).
Price, Jeffrey & Forrest, Jeffrey, Practical Aviation Security: Predicting and Preventing Future Threats, Butterworth-Heinemann (Dec. 8, 2008).
Ramraj, Victor V. (Ed.), Global Anti-Terrorism Law and Policy, Cambridge Press (2005).
Shaw, Malcolm N., International Law, Cambridge University Press (6th Edition 2008).
Thomas, A. R. (Ed.), A Chronology of Attacks against Civil Aviation, Aviation Security Management, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger (2008)
二、學位論文
(一)中文部份 (依作者姓氏排序)
丘臺峰,「恐怖主義與反恐怖主義」,中央警官學校警政研究所碩士論文,民國76年6月。
呂清龍,「我國航空保安實務與發展之研究」,中央警察大學警察政策研究所碩士論文,2009年6月。
陳至威,「航空保安發展策略分析」,國立海洋大學航運管理所碩士論文,民國92年6月
陳羿均,「現階段我國航空保安制度之研究」,中央警察大學外事警察研究所碩士論文,2006年12月。
繆永威,「我國航空保安機制之研究-以臺灣桃園國際機場為例」,中央警察大學刑事警察研究所碩士論文,2007年6月
(二)英文部份(姓氏字母順序排列)
Acharya, Gautam, Legal Aspects of Aviation Security Measures taken at Airports, Thesis (LL.M.) McGill University (August 2005).
Jallow-Sey, Aisatou, ICAO's Aviation Security Programme Post 9/11: A Legal Analysis , Thesis (LL.M.) McGill University (2004).
Jung, Sang Yool, A Legal Analysis of Aviation Security under the International Legal Regime, Thesis (LL.M.) McGill University (2005).
三、期刊及文章
(一)中文部份 (依作者姓氏排序)
王懷玉等,「歐洲的航空保安法規標準體系(上)」,中國民用航空第57期,2005年9月。
汪進財 等,「從比較法之觀點探討我國航空保安法制之問題」,中央警察大學警學叢刊第35卷第5期,2005年3月。
陳華昇,「全球化時代次區域主義與台灣區域整合問題之評析」,財團法人國家政策研究基金會,2009年3月11日。
陳靜慧,「人性尊嚴侵害之違憲審查-兼評德國聯邦憲法法院『航空安全法判決』(BVerfGE 115, 118)」 ,法令月刊第59卷第8期,2008年8月。
張中勇,「國際恐怖主義的演變與發展」,戰略與國際研究,4 卷1 期(民國91 年1月)。
楊惠,「航空保安的幾個法律問題」,法學雜誌,2009年6月,頁98。
蔡庭榕,「反恐的法律挑戰—從人權保障觀察」,第二屆恐怖主義與國家安全學術研討暨實務座談會論文集,2006年,頁194至205。
(二)英文部份 (依作者姓氏排序)
Acharya, Gautam, The Adequacy of Aviation Security Laws and Airport Security, C.E.J.I.S.S Vol.2 Issue 1. (2008)
Abeyratne, R.I.R., The Illicit Transport of Narcotic Drugs by Air, Journal of Transportation Security Volume 1, Number 4 (2008).
Bedell, Elizabeth M. Search and Seizure at Airport Customs Checkpoints--Third Circuit Holds That A Search Involving Inappropriate Contact with A Woman Was Routine and Did Not Need to Be Justified by Reasonable Suspicion: Bradley V. United States, 69 J. Air L. & Com. 177 (Jan. 2004)
Dempsey, Paul S., Airline & Airport Security: Law as a Deterrent to Aerial Terrorism, 27 AASL (2002).
Dempsey, Paul S., Aviation Security: The Role of Law in the War against Terrorism, 41 Colum. J. Transnat'l L. 649 (2003).
Fitzgerald, P. Paul, Air Marshals: The Need for Legal Certainty, 75 J. Air L. & Com. 357 (2010).
Foont, Brian E., Shooting Down Civilian Aircraft: Is There An International Law, 72 J. Air L. & Com. 695 (2007).
Harrison, John, Aviation Security Practice and Education: 1968 Onward, in A. R. Thomas (ed.), Aviation Security Management, Praeger Santa Barbara, CA. (2008).
Karber, Phillip A., Responses to the September 11 attacks: Reconstructing Global Aviation in an Era of the Civil Aircraft as a Weapon of Destruction, 25 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 781 (2002).
Kuhn, David A., Mombassa attack highlights increasing MANPADS threat, Jane's Intelligence Review(February 2003).
Lagodny, Otto, European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism: A Substantial Step to Combat Terrorism, 60 U. Colo. L. Rev. 583 (1989).
Lepsius, Oliver, Human Dignity and the Downing of Aircraft: The German Federal Constitutional Court Strikes Down a Prominent Anti-terrorism Provision in the New Air-transport Security Act, 7 German Law Journal 761.
Milde, Michael, Law and Aviation Security, Air and Space Law: De Lege Ferenda, Essays in Honour of Henri A. Wassenbergh (1992).
Milde, Michael, The International Fight against Terrorism in the Air, in The Use of Airspace and Outer Space for ail Mankind in the 2lst Century, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International (Chia-Jui, Cheng ed.), 148-149 (1995).
Mendes de Leon, Pablo, The Fight against Terrorism through Aviation: Data Production Versus Data Protection, 31 Air & Space Law 320 (Sept 2006).
Milde, Michael, Aviation Safety and Security – Legal Management, 29 AASL (2004).
Miller, Eric J., The ‘Cost’ of Securing Domestic Air Travel, 21 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 405 (2003).
Müller, Felix & Richter, Tobias, Report on the Bundesverfassungsgericht’s (Federal Constitutional Court) Jurisprudence in 2005/2006 - Part I//II, 9 German Law Journal 161-194 (2008).
Neiderman E., People Are the Key to Effective Higher Tech Security, 2 Int’l Airport Review (1998).
Renna, Monica G., Fire in the Sky: A Critical Look at Arming Pilots with Handguns, 68 J. Air L. & Com. 859 (2003).
Rifait, A. F., Illegal Transport by Air of Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Air Law, vol. XV, no.1.
Sand, P.H., Pratt, G. & Lyon, J.T., A Historical Survey of the Law of Flight, Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University, 5 (1961).
Schiavo, Mary F., A Chronology of Attacks against Civil Aviation, in A. R. Thomas (Ed.), Aviation Security Management, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, at 142-260 (2008).
Solomon, Julie, Does the TSA Have Stage Fright? Then Why Are They Picturing You Naked?, 73 J. Air L. & Com. 643 (2008).
Tan, Alan Khee-Jin, Recent Developments Relating to Terrorism and Aviation Security, in Global Anti-Terrorism Law and Policy, edited by Victor V. Ramraj, Cambridge Press, 225-247 (2005)
van der Toorn, Damien, September 11 Inspired Aviation Counter-terrorism Convention and Protocol Adopted, ASIL Insights Volume 15, Issue 3 (Jan. 26 2011).
Young, Barbara E., Responsibility and Liability for Unlawful Interference in International Civil Aviation, supplement AASL, vol.28/1-1 (Feb. 2003).
Zaidi, Kamaal, Aviation Security in Canada and the US, 34 AASL (2009).
四、工作報告書及文件
(一)中文部份
朱冠文,「參加2009年國際航空保安年會報告書」,交通部民用航空局,2010年2月1日。
汪進財、馮正民、蔡中志等人,「我國航空保安策略之研究」,交通部委託,交通大學交通運輸研究所辦理,2003年12月26日。
國際民航組織,「加強航空保安措施促進航空運輸健康發展(由中華人民共和國提交)」,A35-WP/249. EX/102,2004年9月27日。
(二)英文部份
1. 國際民航組織
34th Session Legal Committee on the Views of the International Air Transport Association (IATA)on the Preparation of One or More International Instruments Addressing New and Emerging Threats Working Paper, LC/34-WP/2-3 (Montréal, 9 to 17 September 2009).
Annual Report of the Council 2008, ICAO Doc. 9916 (2009).
Assembly Resolution in Force (as of 28 September 2007), ICAO Doc. 9902 (2008).
Pham, Vu Hien, Aviation in Transition: Challenges & Opportunities of Liberalization, Seminar prior to the ICAO Worldwide Air Transport Conference (2003).
Consideration of the Reports of the Special Sub-Committee on the Preparation of One or More Instruments Addressing New and Emerging Threats, LC/34-WP/2-5 (Sept. 15 2009).
Report of the Special Sub-Committee on the Preparation of One or More Instruments Addressing New and Emerging Threats, LC/SC-NET-2 (Montreal, 19 to 21 February 2008).
Report on The Implementation of Resolution A33-4 Concerning Unruly/Disruptive Passengers, C-WP/12081 (Nov. 18 2003).
Special Sub-Committee on the Preparation of One or More Instruments Addressing New and Emerging Threats Report, LS/SC-NET (Montreal, 3 to 6 July 2007).
Working Paper (Presented by the IATA), A36-WP/84 EX/32, (Aug. 28, 2007)
Working Paper, A37-WP/10 TE/1 (July 26, 2010)
2. 歐盟
Fourth Report on implementation of Regulation 2320/2002 Aviation Security (2009), available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0518:FIN:EN:PDF (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
3. 國際運輸勞工協會
Air Rage: the Prevention and Management of Disruptive Passenger Behaviour. A Guide to Good Practice and Practical Action for Aviation Trade Unionists, the Transport Industry and Safety Regulators. ITF Publications, (May 2000).
4.美國
Civil Aviation Security Rules; Final Rule, Federal Register Vol. 67 No. 36, 8340-8384 (February 22, 2002)
Criminal acts against civil aviation, U.S Department of Transportation (2001)
CRS analysis of the National Strategy for Aviation Security, Department of Homeland Security (March 26, 2007).
The 9/11 Commission report, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office
U.S. and Foreign Registered Aircraft Hijackings, Federal Aviation Administration, Office of Civil Aviation Security, Department of Transportation (Jan. 1, 1985).
Bolkcom, Christopher & Elias, Bartholomew, Homeland Security: Protecting Airliners from Terrorist Missiles, CRS Report for Congress (Feb. 16, 2006).
Chow, James ET AL., Protecting Commercial Aviation against the Shoulder-Fired Missile Threat, Rand Corporation, (2005).
Elias, Bartholomew, Arming Pilots Against Terrorism: Implementation Issues for the Federal Flight Deck Officer Program, Report for Congress (March 25, 2003).
5.英國
Butcher, Louise, Aviation: security, SN/BT/1246 (8 July 2010).
DfT, Transport Security Directorate (TRANSEC) Annual Report to the Secretary of State for Transport, April 2007 - March 2008, 8.
6.加拿大
Flight Plan: Managing the Risks in Aviation Security - Report of the Advisory Panel, CATSA (2006).
7.東南亞國協
Brunei Action Plan (ASEAN Strategic Transport Plan) 2011-2015, available at: http://www.aseansec.org/documents/BAP%202011-2015.pdf (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
8.其它
Safdar, Saleem, Terror in the Skies: International Law, Domestic Security Efforts and Their Efficacy, Fordham Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 957091 (Jan. 15 2007).
五、國際條約
(一) 聯合國
Statute of the International Court of Justice (1945)
Geneva Convention on the High Seas (1958)
Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 1155 UN Treaty Series 331 (1969)
(二) 國際民航組織
Convention on International Civil Aviation, Dec. 7, 1944(Chicago), ICAO Doc.7300/9 (2006)
Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, ICAO Doc. 8369 (1963).
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft, ICAO Doc. 8920 (1970).
Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, ICAO Doc. 8966 (1971).
Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports Serving International Civil Aviation, Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation, done at Montreal, on 23 September 1971 ( Feb. 24 1988).
Safeguarding International Civil Aviation Against Acts of Unlawful Interference, Annex 17 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation Security (8th Edition, April 2006).
Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Relating to International Civil Aviation (Sept. 2010)
Protocol Supplementary to the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (Sept. 2010)
(三) 歐盟
European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism, European Treaty Series No.90 (1977).
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Official Journal of the European Union Volume 53, C83/47 (30 March 2010).
Protocol amending the European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism (2003).
(四) 其他
Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies (1996)
Bangkok Declaration on Partnership for the Future (Oct. 21, 2003).
ASEAN-Japan Ministerial Declaration on Transport Security, Bangkok (Feb. 9, 2007)
ASEAN Multilateral Agreement on Air Services, Manila (May 20, 2009)
Air Transport Agreement between ASEAN and China, Bandar Seri Begawan (Nov. 12, 2010)
六、國際組織決議與宣言
(一) 聯合國大會/安理會決議
G.A. Res. 2551, U.N. Doc., A/RES/2551 (1969).
G.A. Res. 2645, U.N. Doc., A/RES/2645 (1970).
G.A. Res. 44/39, U.N. Doc. A/RES/44/39 (1989)
G.A. Res. 60/288, U.N. Doc., A/RES/60/288 (2006).
G.A. Res. 62/272, U.N. Doc., A/RES/62/272 (2008).
G.A. Res. 64/297, U.N. Doc., A/RES/64/297 (2010).
S.C Res.286, U.N.Doc. S/RES/286 (1970).
S.C Res.635, U.N.Doc. S/RES/635 (1989).
S.C Res.1267, U.N.Doc. S/RES/1267 (1999).
S.C Res.1368, U.N.Doc. S/RES/1368 (2001).
S.C Res.1377, U.N.Doc. S/RES/1377 (2001).
S.C Res.1373, U.N.Doc. S/RES/1373 (2001).
(二) 國際民航組織決議
ICAO Assembly Resolution A17-1, in Doc 8895 (1970).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A20-1, in Doc 9551 (1973)
ICAO Assembly Resolution A22-5, in Doc 9215 (1977).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A27-8, in Doc 9551 (1989).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A33-1 (1999).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A33-4 (1999).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A33-1, in Doc 9790 (2001).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A33-3, in Doc 9790 (2001).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A34-1 (2003).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A36-19 (2007).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A36-20 (Montréal, 18 to28 September 2007).
ICAO Assembly Resolution A36-26 (2007)
(三) 歐盟指令/法規/決議
Directive 95/46/EC (October 24 1995)
Council Decision 1999/468/EC (July 17, 1999).
Commission Decision 2001/844/EC (December 3, 2001).
Regulation (EC) No 1882/2003 (2003)
Commission Regulation (EC) No 300/2008 (April 9, 2008).
Commission Regulation (EC) No 272/2009 (April 3, 2009).
Commission Regulation (EU) No 1254/2009 (December 19, 2009).
Commission Regulation (EU) No 18/2010 (January 12, 2010).
Commission Regulation (EU) No 72/2010 (January 27, 2010).
Commission Regulation (EU) No 185/2010 (March 5, 2010).
Commission Regulation (EU) No 297/2010 (April 10, 2010).
Commission Regulation (EU) No 357/2010 (April 27, 2010).
Commission Regulation (EU) No 358/2010 (April 27, 2010)
Commission Regulation (EU) No 573/2010 (July 1, 2010).
七、法院判決
(一) 英國
Albert v. Lavin, 1 All E.R. 628, 639 (1981).
R. v. Williams, 3 All E.R. 414.
(二) 美國
United States v. Cordova (and Santano) (U.S. District Court, Eastern Disrict of New York, 17 March 1950).
United States v. Davis, 482 F.2nd 893 (9th Circuit Court 1973).
United States v. Montoya De Hernandez, 473 U.S. 531 (1985).
Anderson v. Cornejo, 199 F.R.D. 228 (N.D.Ill.2000).
Torbet v. United Airlines, Inc., 298 F.3d 1087 (9th Cir. 2002)
Green, et al v. TSA (2005).
United States v. Marquez, 410 F.3d 612 (9th Cir. 2005).
United States v. Irving, 432 F.3d 401(2nd Cir. N.Y., 2005)
United States of America v. Tony Barrow, 448 F.3d 37 (1st Cir.2006)
(三) 德國
BVerfGE 115, 118 (2006)
(四) 常設國際法院
The S.S. Lotus, PCIJ, Series A, No.10, 4-108 (1927).
八、新聞報導
黃培生,「美國頒布加速商務飛機防護系統認證進程法」,中國航空信息網,2004年4月5日,http://mil.big5.anhuinews.com/system/2004/04/05/000611333.shtml (最後瀏覽日期:2011年9月11日)
新華網,「利比亞原則上同意賠償洛克比空難受害者」,2002年8月,http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/news.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2002-08/08/content_515358.htm (最後瀏覽日期:2011年9月11日)。
BBC NEWS, Round-up: Aviation in crisis (Nov. 22, 2001), available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1578795.stm (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
BBC News, Stop-and-search powers ruled illegal by European court (12 January 2010), available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/8453878.stm (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Egelko, Bob, Court: Passengers can challenge no-fly list: Ex-Stanford student sued after she was detained at SFO, SFGate.com (August 19, 2008), available at: http://articles.sfgate.com/2008-08-19/bay-area/17124227_1_no-fly-list-separate-selectee-list-appeals-court. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
FOXNews.com, See 6-Year-Old Ohio Girl Placed on 'No-Fly' List (June 26, 2010), available at: http://www.foxnews.com/us/2010/06/26/year-old-ohio-girl-placed-fly-list/. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
ICAO News Center, Diplomatic Conference Adopts Beijing Convention and Protocol, (2010.09.10), available at :http://icaopressroom.wordpress.com/2010/09/10/diplomatic-conference-adopts-beijing-convention-and-protocol/ (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Miller, Leslie, ‘'No-fly list' grounds some unusual young suspects: Similarly-named babies were barred’, The Boston Globe (August 16, 2005), available at: http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2005/08/16/no_fly_list_grounds_some_unusual_young_suspects/ (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Meserve, Jeanne & Hirschkorn, Phil, ACLU sues U.S. over 'no-fly' list, CNN(April 7, 2004), available at: http://edition.cnn.com/2004/LAW/04/06/no.fly.lawsuit/ (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
RIA Novosti, Libya's Soviet-made arms may fall into hands of terrorists – expert (Mar. 24, 2011), available at: http://en.rian.ru/world/20110324/163180831.html. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Sharkey, Joe, Not Too Small to Appear on a Big No-Fly Watch List, New York Times (September 29, 2008), available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/30/business/30road.html?_r=2&oref=slogin (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Slavin , Barbara, Libya Offers New Deal to Pay Pan Am 103 Families, USA Today, Oct. 29, 2002, at A2.
Wilkinson, Paul, Weaknesses In Airport Security Must Be Fixed, The Scotsman, at 16 (Feb. 8 2000).
九、網路資源
Air Disaster.Com, available at: www.airdisasters.com/features/hijack/hijack.shtml (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Airplane Hijacking, available at: http://www.emergency-management.net/airterror_hijack.htm (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Association of Southeast Asian Nations, available at: http://www.aseansec.org/index2008.html (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
CARICOM, http://www.caricom.org/jsp/secretariat/legal_instruments/agreement_cassos.pdf. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011).
ECAC website, available at: https://www.ecac-ceac.org/ (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
EU Commission, Application of EU law, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/community_law/index_en.htm. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
EUROPA website, Civil Aviation Common Rules, available at http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/transport/air_transport/tr0028_en.htm (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
EUROPA, Section 2 Aviation Security Background, Study on Civil Aviation Security Financing (September 2004), available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/air/studies/doc/security/2004_09_security.zip (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
FAA, FAA Unruly Passengers Lists, available at: http://www.faa.gov/data_research/passengers_cargo/unruly_passengers/ (Date accessed: Sept.11, 2011)
ICAO, The Universal Security Audit Programme, available at: http://www2.icao.int/en/AVSEC/USAP/Documents/USAP_Overview.pdf. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011).
ICAO website, available at: http://www.icao.int/ (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
IATA website, available at: http://www.iata.org/Pages/default.aspx (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Transport Canada, Passenger Protect, What is the Passenger Protect Program?, available at: http://www.passengerprotect.gc.ca/home.html (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
TSA, TSA responds to nipple ring complaint, Mar. 29, 2008, available at: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-03-29-2019158383_x.htm. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
United Nations website, available at: http://www.un.org/ (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Chankin-Gould, Sarah & Schroeder, Matt, Man-Portable Air Defense System (MANPADS) Proliferation, FAS website (Jan 2004), available at: http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/asmp/MANPADS.html. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011).
Leicht, Justus, German Constitutional Court strikes down Aviation Security Act, World Socialist Web Site (February 2006), available at:http://www.wsws.org/articles/2006/feb2006/germ-f28.shtml (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Lott, John R., Marshals Are Good, But Armed Pilots Are Better, The Wall Street Journal (2004), available at: http://online.wsj.com/article/0,,SB107299581523057500,00.html?mod=opinion%5Feurope%5Fcommentaries. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
Schroeder, Matt, Black Market Prices for Man-portable Air Defense Systems, FAS website, June 2010, available at: http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/asmp/issueareas/manpads/black_market_prices.pdf. (Date accessed: Sept. 11, 2011)
「民航運輸機發展史」,交通部民用航空局,http://www.caa.gov.tw/big5/files/民航運輸機發展史.doc (最後瀏覽日期:2011年9月11日)。
「我國發展商務航空之整體規劃」,交通部民用航空局,2003年5月,http://www.caa.gov.tw/big5/download/pliad/92-05第五章.doc (最後瀏覽日期:2011年9月11日)。
顏進儒,「航空保安系統」,運研所運輸安全網站航空保安簡介 附件一,http://safety.iot.gov.tw/techknowledge/files%5C運研所運輸安全網站航空保安.pdf (最後瀏覽日期:2011年9月11日)
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