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研究生:杜蕙玲
研究生(外文):Tu, Hui-Ling
論文名稱:音韻覺識教學對台灣國小學童英語解碼能力之成效
論文名稱(外文):THE EFFECTS OF PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS INSTRUCTION ON FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNERS' ENGLISH WORD DECODING SKILLS
指導教授:黃大夫黃大夫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang,Da-Fu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南台科技大學
系所名稱:應用英語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:100
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:119
中文關鍵詞:拼讀教學法音韻覺識字音對應關係
外文關鍵詞:phonicsphonological awarenessgrapheme-phoneme correspondence
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本行動研究旨在探討結合音韻結構之拼讀教學法對台灣國小學童英語解碼能力(包括音韻覺識以及認字能力)之成效。
本研究採準實驗研究設計。 研究對象為28位處於部分字音對應期的四年級學生。 經樣本操作,此28名學生平均分配為實驗組及控制組。 兩組學生各接受12週(約720分鐘)的課程。 實驗組施以結合音韻覺識之拼讀教學法做為教學重點;而控制組則採用字母拼讀法教學。 實驗教學前和後對學童施測。 研究結果發現:
一、 組間比較顯示,實驗組及控制組兩組學生在音韻覺識的表現未達顯著差異。 但如以效果值(Cohen’s d = .79)來看,實驗結果仍有其實際顯著性(Practical significance)。
二、 在文字辨識的表現上,兩組亦無顯著差異。
三、 比較兩組學生在音韻覺識前後測的表現,兩組皆有顯著的進步。 實驗組的表現明顯優於控制組。 實驗組之受試效果值 (effect size)較大。
四、 實驗組組內比較顯示,英語學習低成就學童在實驗教學後音韻覺識能力進步幅度明顯優於組內其他學生。
總結而論,雖然研究對象在認字能力上未有顯著的進步,結合音韻覺識之拼讀教學有助於學童的音韻覺識的提升。 根據上述研究結果,研究者提出建議供對日後想要進行英語補救教學的教師及未來研究方向做為參考。
The present study attempted to explore the effects of phoneme and onset-rime based phonics instruction (PORBIT) on English as foreign language elementary learners’ word decoding skills. The specific purposes were (a) to explore the effectiveness of PORBIT on the English learners in phonemic awareness and in word recognition, (b) to examine the progress of the students’ performance on phonological awareness, and (c) to compare the efficiency of PORBIT between the average skilled learners and the less proficient learners.
Twenty-eight Grade 4 students, mostly in their partial alphabetic stage of English learning, were equally divided into a control group and an experimental group. The subjects in the experimental group were further divided into two subgroups: average learners and at-risk learners. All students received the pretest before the implementation of the treatment and were instructed for 12 weeks (sixty minutes per week). The experimental group received phonological awareness based phonics instruction while the control group received phonics instruction only. A posttest was administered after the intervention.
The results of this quasi-experimental study were summarized as follows:
1. Based on the result of the independent samples t-test, the students who received PORBIT treatment outperformed their counterparty on phonological awareness.
2. With respect to the progress of students’ word recognition, the result revealed that there was no significant difference between the two groups.
3. By comparing within-group progress, result of phonemic awareness assessment was statistical. A large size effect for difference between testing times was found.
4. Although the results of paired sample t-test showed the at-risk learners and the average learners made a statistical gain after the treatment, the at-risk learners appeared to benefit the most.
Although the participants showed no significant progress in word recognition, the findings revealed that the PORBIT instruction appeared to have merits on the overall performance of phonological awareness. It was hoped that the findings of this study offered an insight into English teaching and learning at the introductory level. Suggestions were put forward for future researchers.
Table of Contents
Abstract (English) v
Abstract (Chinese) vii
Acknowlegement viii
Table of Contents ix
List of Tables and Figures xii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Background and Motivation 1
Purpose of the Study 5
Research Questions 6
Significance of the Study 6
Definition of Terms 7
Abbreviation Code 8
Chapter Two: Literature Review 10
Phonological awareness 10
Development of phonological awareness skills. 11
Phonemic awareness tasks. 13
Studies on phonological awareness training. 16
The Alphabetic Principle 18
Literacy and Phonics 20
Phonics and spelling ability. 22
Word boxes and word sorts. 23
Phonics for EFL learners. 26
Related studies in Taiwan. 27
English Language Learning Problems 30
Spelling and pronunciation errors 31
Chapter Three: Method 33
Research Design 33
The preliminary investigation. 37
Pilot study. 40
The formal study. 43
Participants 45
Instruments 47
Materials 51
Procedures 53
Curriculum design. 54
Data Analysis 59
Chapter Four: Results and Discussion 61
Descriptive Statistics on Pretest and Posttest 61
Visual inspection on pretest and posttest. 62
Between-Group Comparison 64
Students’ performance on pretests. 64
Posttest on phonemic awareness. 65
Posttest on word recognition. 66
Within-Group Comparison 67
Pretest vs. posttest on phonemic awareness. 67
Subgroup Comparison within the Experimental Group 72
Triangulations 75
Classroom observation 75
One-to-one interviews . 76
Reflection . 77
Chapter Five: Conclusion and Suggestion 80
Summary of Conclusion 80
Pedagogical Implications and Follow-Up Suggestions 81
Pedagogical implications. 81
Follow-up suggestions. 83
Limitations 84
Suggestions for Future Research 84
References 86
Appendices 95
Appendix A The outputs of the English teachers’ perception on phonics instruction 95
Appendix B Student’s English learning experience survey 100
Appendix C Alphabet recognition assessment 101
Appendix D Subjects’ grouping 102
Appendix E Most common phonograms in rank order based on frequency 103
Appendix F Pretest 104
Appendix G Posttest 110
Appendix H Lesson plan (PORBIT Group) 116
Appendix I Lesson plan (phonics Group) 118
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