(3.230.76.48) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/13 14:27
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李汶軒
研究生(外文):Wen-hsuan Li
論文名稱:N-acetylcysteine治療可預防間歇性低氧增強正常血壓大鼠與自發性高血壓大鼠之心肺反應
論文名稱(外文):N-acetylcysteine treatment prevents the enhanced cardiorespiratory response induced by intermittent hypoxia in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats
指導教授:賴靜蓉賴靜蓉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Jung Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:慈濟大學
系所名稱:生理暨解剖醫學碩士班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:交感神經活性高血壓動脈化學反應反應性氧衍生物自發性高血壓大鼠
外文關鍵詞:Sympathetic nerve activityHypertensi
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:341
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:36
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
長期暴露於間歇性低氧,如同阻塞型睡眠呼吸中止症病患於睡眠期間處於反覆性呼吸中止現象,可導致系統性高血壓。臨床上更發現高血壓患者亦具有較高比率罹患阻塞型睡眠呼吸中止症。間歇性低氧就如同缺氧再獲氧的情況下,會使細胞內產生大量的反應性氧衍生物。本實驗欲比較自發性高血壓大鼠 (SHR)、Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)品系之正常血壓大鼠和 Sprague-Dawley rats (SD)大鼠於間歇性低氧情況下,其動脈化學反射、心臟交感神經調節以及平均動脈血壓上是否有所差異。並且去確認反應性氧衍生物是否參與這些心肺功能之反應的變化。本實驗採用八至九週大之成熟雄性大鼠,每天於動物光亮期 (10 AM – 4 AM)暴露於間歇性低氧或正常空氣環境之周期為75秒/次 (灌流30秒的氮氣後,再予灌流45秒的空氣)的間歇性低氧,每天持續六小時,連續觀察三十天。使用非侵入性無線遙測儀系統偵測每天動脈血壓訊號,並將此動脈血壓訊號再經由平均動脈血壓以及心率變異性分析,用以評估自主神經功能之活性。每天測量清醒動物於空氣及急性低氧 (12% O2)下,其大鼠呼吸速率、潮氣容積、每分鐘肺通氣量等化學反射之指標。實驗結果發現到在間歇性低氧或空氣之暴露下WKY和SD的平均動脈血壓是相類似的,且皆都顯著較SHR低。與WKY及SD相比,SHR在間歇性低氧或空氣暴露後,交感神經血管運動調控指標之反應有明顯上升。而比較三種品系大鼠,間歇性低氧並未造成在心跳速率以及心臟副交感神經活性指標反應之變化,但在心臟交感神經活性指標反應上升之變化類似。此外,間歇性低氧在三種品系大鼠上,引起每分鐘通氣量 (動脈化學反射活性的指標)及孤獨核尾部FosB之表現量是相類似的。而先前以腹腔注射給予N-acetylcysteine (一種抗氧化劑,250 mg/kg) 能預防間歇性低氧下提高之心肺反應及孤獨核尾部FosB的表現量。根據上述結果可間接推測,1) 此三種品系大鼠,間歇性低氧引發之高血壓可能與動脈化學反射活化及交感神經活性增加有關。2) ROS可能參與間歇性低氧所引發的這些心肺反應。
Long-term exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH), such as that which occurs with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), may be one factor contributing to systemic hypertension seen in OSA patients. Importantly, OSA occurs frequently in the hypertensive patients. IH seems to resemble hypoxia-reoxygenation, wherein cellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study attempted to evaluate the differences in arterial chemoreflex, cardiac autonomic modulations, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) among spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), and Sprague-Dawley rats (SD) following IH exposure, and to determine the role of ROS involves in eliciting these cardiopulmonary alternations in these conscious unrestrained rats. We used age-matched (8-9-wk-old) adult male rats exposed to repetitive 1.25-min cycles (30 s of N2 + 45 s of 21% O2) of IH or room air (RA) for 6 h/day during light phase (10 AM-4 PM) for 30 days. Blood pressure signals were measured daily by the telemetry system, which were used to assess the autonomic function by MAP and heart rate variability analysis. Respiratory responses during RA breathing and acute hypoxia (12% O2), the indices for tonic and phasic chemoreflex activation, respectively, were measured daily using the barometric technique of plethysmography. WKY and SD had similar MAP, which is significantly lower than that of SHR after RA or IH exposure. Furthermore, SHR developed higher low-frequency power of the MAP spectrogram (BLF) (an index for sympathetic vasomotor activity) after RA or IH exposure. Among three strains of rats, IH did not induce changes in high-frequency power of pulses interval spectrogram (HF) (an index for cardiac vagal activity) and heart rate, but a similar increase in normalized low-frequency power of pulses interval spectrogram (LF%) (an index for cardiac sympathetic outflow). Additionally, IH challenge exhibited a similar and significant increase in minute ventilation (an index for arterial chemoreflex activation) and FosB expression in caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (cNTS) in three strains of rats. Intraperitoneal injection of N-acetylcysteine (an antioxidant, 250 mg/kg, i.p.) totally prevented IH-induced the elevations of the cardiorespiratory responses and FosB expression in cNTS. These results suggest that 1) IH-induced hypertension may be associated with arterial chemoreflex activation and facilitation of sympathetic outflow in three different strains of rats; and 2) ROS may involve in IH-induced these cardiorespiratory responses.
目錄 I
中文摘要 III
英文摘要 V
壹、緒言 1
重要性 1
背景知識 1
一、 長期間歇性低氧對生理之影響 3
二、長期間歇性低氧引發週邊動脈化學反射反應之變化 3
三、間歇性低氧對自主神經功能之影響 5
四、反應性氧衍生物參與於長期間歇性低氧中之變化 6
五、反應性氧衍生物參與於長期間歇性低氧所引發心血管反應過程之可能性 8
六、高血壓導致睡眠呼吸中止增加之可能原因 9
七、研究目的 10
貳、實驗材料與方法 11
一、實驗動物 11
二、血壓訊號無線遙測器之埋設手術 11
三、間歇性低氧模式 12
四、正常氧分壓模式 12
五、血壓之測量 12
六、自主神經功能之分析 13
七、動脈化學反射反應之測量 14
八、動物犧牲與組織處理 15
九、免疫組織化學染色 15
十、藥品 16
十一、實驗設計及步驟 16
十二、統計分析 19
参、實驗結果 20
一、長期間歇性低氧暴露對大鼠其動脈化學反射反應之影響 20
二、長期間歇性低氧暴露對大鼠其心血管反應之影響 24
三、長期間歇性低氧暴露對大鼠孤獨核尾部之影響 31
肆、討論 32
伍、圖表與說明 40
陸、參考文獻 110
陸、參考文獻

Adhikary G, Kline D, Yuan G, Kumar GK, Simonson MS, Cherniack NS, Prabhakar NR (Gene regulation during intermittent hypoxia: evidence for the involvement of reactive oxygen species. Adv Exp Med Biol 499:297-302.2001).

Aruma OI, Halliwell B, Hoey BM, Butler J (The antioxidant action of N-acetylcysteine: its reaction with hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide, and hypochlorous acid. Free Radic Biol Med 6: 593-597. 1989)

Baguet JP, Nisse-Durgeat S, Mouret S (A placebo-controlled comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of candesartan cilexetil, 8 mg, and losartan, 50 mg, as monotherapy in patients with essential hypertension, using 36-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Int J Clin Pract.60: 391-398.2006).

Bao G, Metreveli N, Li R, Taylor A, Fletcher EC (Blood pressure response to chronic episodic hypoxia: role of the sympathetic nervous system. J Appl Physiol 83:95-101.1997).

Bisgard GE (Carotid body mechanisms in acclimatization to hypoxia. Respir Physiol 121:237-246.2000).

Braughler JM, Hall ED (Involvement of lipid peroxidation in CNS injury. J Neurotrauma 9 Suppl 1:S1-7.1992).

Campese VM, Ye S, Zhong H, Yanamadala V, Ye Z, Chiu J (Reactive oxygen species stimulate central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system activity. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287:H695-703.2004).

Chan SH, Tai MH, Li CY, Chan JY (Reduction in molecular synthesis or enzyme activity of superoxide dismutases and catalase contributes to oxidative stress and neurogenic hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Free Radic Biol Med 40:2028-2039.2006).

Chen J, Newton SS, Zeng L, Adams DH, Dow AL, Madsen TM, Nestler EJ, Duman RD (Downregulation of the CCAAT-enhancer binding pretein β in ΔFosB Transgenic Mice and by electroconvulsive seizures. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:23-31.2004).
Chen J, Kelz MB, Hope BT, Nakabeppu Y, Nestler EJ (Chronic Fos-related antigens: stable variants of deltaFosB induced in brain by chronic treatments. J Neurosci 17:4933-4941.1997).

Christou K, Moulas AN, Pastaka C, Gourgoulianis KI (Antioxidant capacity in
obstructive sleep apnea patients. Sleep Med 4: 225-228.2003a).

Cragg PA, Runold M, Kou YR, Prabhakar NR (Tachykinin antagonists in carotid body responses to hypoxia and substance P in the rat. Respir Physiol 95:295-310.1994).

Dyugovskaya L, Lavie P, Lavie L (Increased adhesion molecules expression and production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes of sleep apnea patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:934-939.2002).

Esler M, Rumantir M, Kaye D, Jennings G, Hastings J, Socratous F, Lambert G (Sympathetic nerve biology in essential hypertension. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 28:986-989.2001).

Fatemian M, Kim DY, Poulin MJ, Robbins PA (Very mild exposure to hypoxia for 8 h can induce ventilatory acclimatization in humans. Pflugers Arch 441:840-843.2001).

Finkel T, Holbrook NJ (Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing. Nature 408:239-247.2000).

Fletcher EC (Effect of episodic hypoxia on sympathetic activity and blood pressure. Respir Physiol 119:189-197.2000).

Fletcher EC (Invited review: Physiological consequences of intermittent hypoxia: systemic blood pressure. J Appl Physiol 90:1600-1605.2001).

Fletcher EC, Bao G, Li R (Renin activity and blood pressure in response to chronic episodic hypoxia. Hypertension 34:309-314.1999).

Fletcher EC, DeBehnke RD, Lovoi MS, Gorin AB (Undiagnosed sleep apnea in patients with essential hypertension. Ann Intern Med 103:190-195.1985).

Fletcher EC, Lesske J, Behm R, Miller CC, 3rd, Stauss H, Unger T (Carotid chemoreceptors, systemic blood pressure, and chronic episodic hypoxia mimicking sleep apnea. J Appl Physiol 72:1978-1984.1992a).
Fletcher EC, Lesske J, Culman J, Miller CC, Unger T (Sympathetic denervation blocks blood pressure elevation in episodic hypoxia. Hypertension 20:612-619.1992b).

Fletcher EC, Miller J, Schaaf JW, Fletcher JG (Urinary catecholamines before and after tracheostomy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. Sleep 10:35-44.1987).

Frenois F, Moreau M, O'Connor J, Lawson M, Micon C, Lestage J, Kelley KW, Dantzer R, Castanon N (Lipopolysaccharide induces delayed FosB/DeltaFosB immunostaining within the mouse extended amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus, that parallel the expression of depressive-like behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology 32:516-531.2007).

Fukuda Y, Sato A, Trzebski A (Carotid chemoreceptor discharge responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Auton Nerv Syst 19:1-11.1987).

Germack R, Leon-Velarde F, Valdes De La Barra R, Farias J, Soto G, Richalet JP (Effect of intermittent hypoxia on cardiovascular function, adrenoceptors and muscarinic receptors in Wistar rats. Exp Physiol 87:453-460.2002).

Grotz, W, Buchner N, Wessendorf T, Teschler H, Grote L, Becker HF, Rump LC [Sleep apnea--treatment improves hypertension]. Med Klin (Munich) 101(11): 880-885.2006

Heitmann J, Ehlenz K, Penzel T, Becker HF, Grote L, Voigt KH, Peter JH, Vogelmeier C (Sympathetic activity is reduced by nCPAP in hypertensive obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Eur Respir J 23:255-262.2004).

Hozawa A, Ebihara S, Ohmori K, Kuriyama S, Ugajin T, Koizumi Y, Suzuki Y, Matsui T, Arai H, Tsubono Y, Sasaki H, Tsuji I (Increased plasma 8-isoprostane levels in hypertensive subjects: the Tsurugaya Project. Hypertens Res 27:557-561.2004).

Imadojemu VA, Mawji Z, Kunselman A, Gray KS, Hogeman CS, Leuenberger UA (Sympathetic Chemoreflex Responses in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy*. Chest 131(5): 1406-1413.2007)

Ito T, Kato T, Iwama Y, Muramatsu M, Shimizu K, Asano H, Okumura K, Hashimoto H, Satake T (Prostaglandin H2 as an endothelium-derived contracting factor and its interaction with endothelium-derived nitric oxide. J Hypertens 9:729-736.1991).
Kara T, Narkiewicz K, Somers VK (Chemoreflexes--physiology and clinical implications. Acta Physiol Scand 177:377-384.2003).

Kerr S, Brosnan MJ, McIntyre M, Reid JL, Dominiczak AF, Hamilton CA (Superoxide anion production is increased in a model of genetic hypertension: role of the endothelium. Hypertension 33:1353-1358.1999).

Kishi T, Hirooka Y, Kimura Y, Ito K, Shimokawa H, Takeshita A (Increased reactive oxygen species in rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to neural mechanisms of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circulation 109:2357-2362.2004).

Kline DD, Yang T, Huang PL, Prabhakar NR (Altered respiratory responses to hypoxia in mutant mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase. J Physiol 511 ( Pt 1):273-287.1998).

Kung CF, Luscher TF (Different mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction with aging and hypertension in rat aorta. Hypertension 25:194-200.1995).

Kuo TB, Yien HW, Hseu SS, Yang CC, Lin YY, Lee LC, Chan SH (Diminished vasomotor component of systemic arterial pressure signals and baroreflex in brain death. Am J Physiol 273:H1291-1298.1997).

Lahiri S, Rozanov C, Cherniack NS (Altered structure and function of the carotid body at high altitude and associated chemoreflexes. High Altitude Medicine Biology 1:63-74.2000).

Lai CJ, Yang CC, Hsu YY, Lin YN, Kuo TB (Enhanced sympathetic outflow and decreased baroreflex sensitivity are associated with intermittent hypoxia-induced systemic hypertension in conscious rats. J Appl Physiol.2006a).

Lai CJ, Yang CC, Hsu YY, Lin YN, Kuo TB (Enhanced sympathetic outflow and decreased baroreflex sensitivity are associated with intermittent hypoxia-induced systemic hypertension in conscious rats. J Appl Physiol 100:1974-1982.2006b).

Lai CJ Kuo TB, Yuan ZF, Lin YS, Lin YN, Li WS, Yang CH (Reactives oxygen species are the cause of the enhanced cardio respiratory response induced by intermittent hypoxia in conscious rats. Respir 175:70-79. 2011).

Lavie P, Ben-Yosef R, Rubin AE (Prevalence of sleep apnea syndrome among patients with essential hypertension. Am Heart J 108:373-376.1984).
Lefebvre B, Godin-Ribuot D, Joyeux-Faure M, Caron F, Bessard G, Levy P, Stanke-Labesque F (Functional assessment of vascular reactivity after chronic intermittent hypoxia in the rat. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 150:278-286.2006).

Lesske J, Fletcher EC, Bao G, Unger T (Hypertension caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia--influence of chemoreceptors and sympathetic nervous system. J Hypertens 15:1593-1603.1997).

Leuenberger U, Jacob E, Sweer L, Waravdekar N, Zwillich C, Sinoway L (Surges of muscle sympathetic nerve activity during obstructive apnea are linked to hypoxemia. J Appl Physiol 79:581–588.1995).

Lmadojemu VA, Gleeson K, Quraishi SA, Kunselman AR, Sinoway LI, Leguengberger UA (Impaired vasodilator responses in obstructive sleep apnoea are improved with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Am J Respir 165: 950-53.2002)

Maeda K, Yasunari K, Sato EF, Yoshikawa J, Inoue M (Activation of protein kinase C and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase in leukocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertens Res 26:999-1006.2003).

McClung CA, Ulery PG, Perrotti LI, Zachariou V, Berton O, Nestler EJ (DeltaFosB: amolecular switch for long-term adaptation to in the brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 132:146-154.2004).
McGuire M, Zhang Y, White DP, Ling L (Chronic intermittent hypoxia enhances ventilatory long-term facilitation in awake rats. J Appl Physiol 95:1499-1508.2003).

Narkiewicz K, Somers VK (Sympathetic nerve activity in obstructive sleep apnoea. Acta Physiol Scand 177:385-390.2003).

Newman AB, Nieto FJ, Guidry U (Relation of sleep-disordered breathing to cardiovascular disease risk factors: the sleep heart health study. Am J Epidemiol 154:50-59.2001).

Nikulina EM, Romany IA, Miczek KA, Ronald P, Hammer JR (Long-lasting alteration in mesocorticolimbic structures after repeated social defeat stress in rats:time course or μ-opioid receptor mRNA and FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity Eur J Neurosic 27:2272-2284.2008)

Peng YJ, Overholt JL, Kline D, Kumar GK, Prabhakar NR (Induction of sensory long-term facilitation in the carotid body by intermittent hypoxia: implications for recurrent apneas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:10073-10078.2003a).

Peng YJ, Prabhakar NR (Reactive oxygen species in the plasticity of respiratory behavior elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia. J Appl Physiol 94:2342-2349.2003b).

Peng YJ, Rennison J, Prabhakar NR (Intermittent hypoxia augments carotid body and ventilatory response to hypoxia in neonatal rat pups. J Appl Physiol 97:2020-2025.2004).

Prabhakar NR (Oxygen sensing by the carotid body chemoreceptors. J Appl Physiol 88:2287-2295.2000).

Prabhakar NR, Fields RD, Baker T, Fletcher EC (Intermittent hypoxia: cell to system. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281:L524-528.2001).

Prabhakar NR, Peng YJ, Jacono FJ, Kumar GK, Dick TE (Cardiovascular alterations by chronic intermittent hypoxia: importance of carotid body chemoreflexes. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 32:447-449.2005).

Pryor WA (Oxy-radicals and related species: their formation, lifetimes, and reactions. Annu Rev Physiol 48:657-667.1986).

Raha S, Robinson BH (Mitochondria, oxygen free radicals, disease and ageing. Trends Biochem Sci 25:502-508.2000).

Rangan U, Bulkley GB (Prospects for treatment of free radical-mediated tissue injury. Br Med Bull 49:700-718.1993).

Rey S, Del Rio R, Alcayaga J, Iturriaga R (Chronic intermittent hypoxia enhances cat chemosensory and ventilatory responses to hypoxia. J Physiol 560:577-586.2004).

Russo C, Olivieri O, Girelli D, Faccini G, Zenari ML, Lombardi S, Corrocher R (Anti-oxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 16:1267-1271.1998).

Schnackenberg CG, Wilcox CS (Two-week administration of tempol attenuates both hypertension and renal excretion of 8-Iso prostaglandin f2alpha. Hypertension 33:424-428.1999).

Schulz R, Mahmoudi S, Hattar K, Sibelius U, Olschewski H, Mayer K, Seeger W, Grimminger F (Enhanced release of superoxide from polymorphonuclear neutrophils in obstructive sleep apnea. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 162:566-570.2000).

Shu XO, Gao YT, Brinton LA (A population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia in Shanghai. Cancer 62:635-644.1988)

Sica AL, Greenberg HE, Ruggiero DA, Scharf SM (Chronic-intermittent hypoxia: a model of sympathetic activation in the rat. Respir Physiol 121:173-184.2000).

Smith ML, Muenter NK (Effects of hypoxia on sympathetic neural control in humans. Respir Physiol 121:163-171.2000).

Somers VK, Abboud FM (Chemoreflexes--responses, interactions and implications for sleep apnea. Sleep 16:S30-33; discussion S33-34.1993).

Somers VK, Dyken ME, Clary MP, Abboud FM (Sympathetic neural mechanisms in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Invest 96:1897-1904.1995).

Somers VK, Mark AL, Abboud FM (Potentiation of sympathetic nerve responses to hypoxia in borderline hypertensive subjects. Hypertension 11:608-612.1988).

Soukhova-O'Hare GK, Ortines RV, Gu Y, Nozdrachev AD, Prabhu SD, Gozal D (Postnatal intermittent hypoxia and developmental programming of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats: the role of reactive oxygen species and L-Ca2+ channels. Hypertension 52:156-162.2008).

Tagami M, Yamagata K, Ikeda K, Fujino H, Nara Y, Nakagawa K, Kubota A, Numano F, Yamori Y (Genetic vulnerability of cortical neurons isolated from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in hypoxia and oxygen reperfusion. Hypertens Res 22:23-29.1999).

Troncoso XG, Tse PU, Macknik SL, Caplovitz GP, Hsieh PJ, Schlegel AA, Otero-Millan J and Martinez-Conde S (BOLD activation varies parametrically with corner angle throughout human retinotopic cortex, Perception 36, 808–820.2007)

Trzebski A, Tafil M, Zoltowski M, Przybylski J (Increased sensitivity of the arterial chemoreceptor drive in young men with mild hypertension. Cardiovasc Res 16:163-172.1982).

Turrens JF (Superoxide production by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Biosci Rep 17:3-8.1997).

Waradekar NV, Sinoway LI, Zwillich CW, Leuenberger UA (Influence of treatment on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in sleep apnea. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153:1333-1338.1996).

Waki H, Gouraud SS, Maeda M, Paton J (Specific inflammatory condition in nucleus tractus solitarii of the SHR: Novel insight for neurogenic hypertension? Neurosci 142:25-31.2008)

Wolk R, Somers VK (Cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea. Clin Chest Med 24:195-205.2003).

Yaggi H, Mohsenin V (Sleep-disordered breathing and stroke. Clin Chest Med 24: 223−237.2003).

Yang CC, Lai CW, Lai HY, Kuo TB (Relationship between electroencephalogram slow-wave magnitude and heart rate variability during sleep in humans. Neurosci Lett 329:213-216.2002).

Yang CC, Shaw FZ, Lai CJ, Lai CW, Kuo TB (Relationship between electroencephalogram slow-wave magnitude and heart rate variability during sleep in rats. Neurosci Lett 336:21-24.2003).

Yi-Ning Lin (Role of reactive oxygen species in the chemoreflex and cardiovascular responses to chronic intermittent hypoxia in conscious rats. Master's Thesis.2006)

Zimmerman MC, Davisson RL (Redox signaling in central neural regulation of cardiovascular function. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 84:125-149.2004).
Zoccal, DB, Bonagamba, LGH, Oliveira, FRT, Antunes-Rodrigues, J, Machado, BH (Increased sympathetic activity in rats submitted to chronic intermittent hypoxia. Exp Physiol 92(1): 79-85.2007)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔