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研究生:蔡宇展
研究生(外文):Yu-Chan Tsai
論文名稱:真空消失模用之PMMA發泡材制作
論文名稱(外文):Expandable Particles of PMMA for Lost Foam Casting
指導教授:楊怡寬
指導教授(外文):I-Kuan Yang
口試委員:喬緒明徐武軍
口試委員(外文):Shu-Min ChiaoWu-Chun Hsu
口試日期:2011-01-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:化學工程與材料工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:113
中文關鍵詞:發泡材真空消失模
外文關鍵詞:lost foam casting
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本研究使用兩種不同法製備真空消失模用之PMMA或PMMA/PS共聚物之發泡粒子,其中二步法是借由懸浮聚合的方式聚合出適當粒徑大小與範圍的粒子,然後將已篩過的粒子置於可耐壓的耐水洗牢度試驗機內滲入發泡劑,最後將已滲入發泡劑的粒子放進沸水中發泡;另外,一步法則是同時在耐壓的磁力驅動反應器內一次完成懸浮聚合與發泡劑的滲入。再使用數位相機拍照配合I mageJ影像處理軟體對粒徑大小進行分析,然後計算各組發泡大小並比較其發泡倍率。

由研究結果發現,二部法製備PMMA粒子時,小幅度改變分散劑PVA用量,以及在聚合反應1hr後改變攪拌速度並不能對粒徑大小與分佈造成明顯影響;不過PMMA或PMMA/PS共聚物在較高溫度下聚合容易造成粒子聚併成塊或粒徑較大的結果;另外,使用一步法製備出之PMMA/PS共聚物發泡粒子少了許多細小粉末狀。研究結果顯示増加發泡劑的用量可讓發泡粒子有發泡的比例增加,但提高滲入發泡劑時的溫度並不會對發泡倍率造成明顯影響;此外在相同發泡倍率之下一步法所使用發泡劑用量比二步法少3/4,而且也縮短製備PMMA/PS共聚物發泡粒子的時間。

This research uses two methods to prepare expandable polymer particles of PMMA or PMMA-co-PS that were used for lost foam casting. The first method is a two-step method, in which the monomer is suspended in water to polymerize into particles of appropriate size before sieving the polymer particles and putting them into a laundry fastness testing machine for foaming agent impregnation. The particles containing the blowing agent are expanded in boiling water for the test of expansion. The second method is a one-step method, in which suspension polymerization and foaming agent impregnation are simultaneously undergoing in a magnet stirred reactor. Digital camera takes the picture s of expanded particles and with Image J their particle sizes were analyzed.

For two-step method, the change of either PVA concentration or agitation rate could not make obvious changes in particle size or particle size distribution. Polymerization of PMMA or PMMA-co-PS at high temperature shows coalescence leading to the production of large particles. Polymerization of PMMA-co-PS by one-step method produces only trace amount of tiny particles. The research shows increasing amounts of foaming agent could increase the percentage of expandable beads, but increase in the operating temperature in foaming agent impregnation did not make apparent influences to expanded bead size. One-step method uses only one quarter of foaming agent used in two-step method and its process time cost in the preparation of PMMA-co-PS expandable beads was also much less when comparing to two-step method.

中文摘要..................................................................................................Ⅰ
Abstrat....................................................................................................Ⅱ
致謝..........................................................................................................Ⅲ
目錄..........................................................................................................Ⅳ
圖目錄......................................................................................................Ⅷ
表目錄..................................................................................................ⅩⅣ
第一章 緒論..............................................................................................1
第二章 簡介..............................................................................................2
2-1 真空消失模鑄造.........................................................................2
2-1-1 真空消失模鑄造步驟.........................................................2
2-1-2 真空消失模的優點.............................................................3
2-2 懸浮聚合.....................................................................................5
2-2-1 自由基聚合.........................................................................5
2-2-2 懸浮聚合成粒的方式.........................................................6
2-3 聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯.....................................................................7
2-4 聚苯乙烯.....................................................................................7
2-5 發泡塑膠材料.............................................................................8
2-5-1 發泡塑膠材料的定義與發泡方法.....................................8
2-5-2 物理發泡法.........................................................................9
2-5-3 化學發泡法.........................................................................9
2-5-4 機械發泡法.......................................................................10
2-6日本發泡材規格........................................................................11
第三章 文獻回顧....................................................................................15
3-1 懸浮聚合的發展.......................................................................15
3-2 懸浮聚合典型行為...................................................................16
3-3 懸浮聚合控制粒徑的因素.......................................................18
3-3-1 懸浮聚合中分散劑對顆粒大小與粒徑分佈影響...........18
3-3-2 以PVA做為PS懸浮聚合之分散劑對液滴大小與粒徑分佈的影響............................................................................19
3-3-3 以PVP做為PMMA懸浮聚合之分散劑對液滴大小與粒徑分佈的影響....................................................................22
3-3-4 不同轉速對粒徑大小與粒徑分佈的影響........................23
3-3-5 其它不同因素對MMA懸浮聚合粒徑大小的影響........26
3-4 比較製備共聚物發泡樹酯一步法與二步法之優缺點...........26
3-5 發泡材料選擇...........................................................................27
3-6 真空消失模用之PMMA或PMMA-co-PS發泡粒子.............28
3-7 發泡材的其它應用...................................................................29
第四章 實驗方法....................................................................................30
4-1 實驗藥品...................................................................................30
4-2 實驗儀器...................................................................................31
4-2-1 合成設備...........................................................................31
4-2-2 樣品處理設備...................................................................31
4-2-3 發泡設備...........................................................................32
4-2-4 性質檢測設備...................................................................35
4-3 實驗方法..................................................................................37
4-3-1 實驗流程...........................................................................38
4-3-2 製備PMMA粒子.............................................................40
4-3-3 製備不同比例的PMMA/PS共聚物粒子.........................41
4-3-4 耐水洗牢度試驗機滲入發泡劑步驟...............................43
4-3-5 磁力驅動反應器滲入發泡劑步驟...................................44
4-3-6 製備含發泡劑之PMMA/PS共聚物粒子........................45
4-3-7 PMMA或PMMA/PS共聚物之發泡步驟.........................46
第五章 結果與討論................................................................................47
5-1 分散劑PVA的使用量對粒徑分佈與產率的影響.................47
5-2 改變聚合的溫度對粒徑分佈與產率的影響...........................51
5-3 二階段轉速對粒徑分佈與產率的影響...................................55
5-4 不同比例的PMMA/PS共聚物對粒徑分佈與產率的影響....61
5-5 不同轉速對PMMA/PS共聚物粒徑分佈與產率的影響........67
5-6 二步法下不同比例的PMMA/PS共聚物對發泡倍率的影響74
5-7 二步法於不同發泡溫度對PMMA/PS共聚物發泡倍率的影響..............................................................................................80
5-8 發泡劑的用量對二步法PMMA/PS共聚物發泡的影響.......85
5-9 發泡劑的用量對一步法PMMA/PS共聚物發泡倍率的影響..............................................................................................88
5-10 使用一步法與二步法於相同比例的PMMA/PS共聚物對其粒徑分佈與發泡倍率的差別..................................................89
第六章 結論............................................................................................94
第七章 建議............................................................................................96
參考文獻..................................................................................................97
附錄A.......................................................................................................99
附錄B.....................................................................................................104
附錄C.....................................................................................................109

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