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研究生:蔡秀君
研究生(外文):Shiou-Jiun Vickie Tsai
論文名稱:透過多元化學習教材探索台灣批判反省式語言學習之可行性
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the Possibilities in Taiwan for Critical Literacy through Multiple Learning Sources
指導教授:郭俊銘郭俊銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Jun-min Kuo
口試委員:邱嘉慧黃聖慧
口試委員(外文):Dr. Chia-Hui ChiuDr. Sheng-hui Huang
口試日期:2010-12-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2010
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:187
相關次數:
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本研究透過多元化學習教材 (例如繪本與漫畫式之童話),探究台灣非外文(英語)系大一新生利用批判反省語言學習方式學習英語之可行性。主要研究目的是希望了解學生對研究者所設計的三個主題式英語學習活動,反應為何?此外,此研究亦探討學生在所有活動結束之後,對英語學習觀念或態度之改變。藉由同時檢視三個活動之分析結果,本研究亦希望發現重要之準則與啟發,以供英語教學人士參考與應用。
研究所設計之活動實施於2009年下學期,研究對象為中台灣某私立大學非外文系大一新生,共計男性學生8位、女性學生26位。參與之學生皆來自該校大一英文課程某中高級班,係由社會科學院不同科系組成,包含法律、社會、經濟等學系。本研究以質性研究為主,量性研究之問卷為輔。研究資料包含研究者日誌、教室觀察、學生之習作、學習心得、追蹤訪談等。本研究以紮根理論分析質性研究資料,並透過統計軟體SPSS13.0 for Windows整理問卷資料,提供描述性統計數據。
研究結果顯示,大多數學生對所討論之三個主題式教學活動,皆表示高度認同,因為學生認為各活動之主題與其生活相關,故可以引起學生之共鳴。整個教室之語言學習過程對學生而言,是有意義、有參與性及反思的可能性。此外,在整個語言學習過程中。學生變成主動之學習者,提供許多自己的想法,並帶進教室活動中,用不同的角度檢視學習文本,針對特定主題(例如性別刻版印象),建構新的價值觀和觀念。研究成果亦顯示,這三個教學活動讓學生改變了其英語學習的觀念,學生開始認為教室語言學習課程不應該侷限於單一的教學方式,語言學習之提升也可以透過不同方式,例如透過討論、海報製作、反省式寫作練習和繪本閱讀等方式,而不是單一而機械式的使用教科書。
根據以上研究結果,為了增加批判反省式語言學習在英語為第二外語之教學國家的可行性,英語教育者可參考以下準則。第一,教室裡所使用之教材及所討論之主題都應該與學習者相關,教師可多利用學生在課堂之外感興趣之事物,做為多元化教材來源之一,同時可以將學生之生活經驗作為討論之依據。第二,語言學習的重點不僅在於提升各語言能力,亦需被視為一種社會化過程,在整個學習過程中,透過多樣的主題,學生可以批判、思考學生在教室之外的各種角色。第三,批判反省式語言學習是一種觀念,值得各語言教學者將此理念融入其他英語領域相關的課程,例如「英語會話」、「英語閱讀」、「英語寫作」或甚至應用於各類文學課程。
本研究之結論顯示,利用多元化學習教材進行批判反省式語言學習活動,可以幫助學生在整個學習過程當中,自然地使用所要學習之語言,探究各項主題,透過個人觀點窺探課堂外的世界,幫助學生省思個人與社會的互動。



關鍵字: 繪本、漫畫式童話、多元化學習教材、社會化活動、批判反省式語言學習


The purpose of the study is to gain valuable insight into the practice of critical literacy in the EFL classroom through different types of learning input (e.g., picture books and comic-format fairy tales). The study is intended to explore Taiwanese university students’ reactions to three theme-based activities from a critical perspective and to examine their attitudes toward various modes of communication used in the classroom. In addition, the study attempts to investigate students’ perceptions of language learning and teaching after they had experienced different exercises during the entire learning process. Finally, an examination of the three activities is conducted in order to arrive at relevant theoretical principles and instructional implications.
The three activities were implemented during the 2009 fall semester at a private university in central Taiwan. The student participants were 8 male and 26 female students at high-mid English level in a General English class offered for non-English- major freshmen. They were all from different departments of the College of Social Sciences, such as Law, Sociology, and Economics. The methods used in the study were mainly qualitative, supported by a course evaluation questionnaire. Data sources consisted of the questionnaire and qualitative sources such as the researcher’s journal entries, classroom observations and field notes, students’ classroom artifacts and their assignments, students’ reflection papers, and interviews. Grounded theory served as the primary tool to analyze qualitative data; the computer software package SPSS 13.0 for Windows was used to compute and analyze the data collected from the questionnaire to provide descriptive statistical results.
The present study has found that many students who participated in the study showed strong preference for the three theme-based activities and they agreed that the entire learning experience was meaningful, engaging, and reflective. Students agreed that in each of the three activities they were offered many opportunities to bring their ideas into the classroom, to evaluate texts from alternative perspectives, and to reconstruct new understandings of values or beliefs on specific issues (e.g., multiple perspectives or gender stereotypes). In addition, the study indicates that all three activities, based on notions of critical literacy, made most students change their perceptions of English learning and teaching. Students felt that teaching should not be implemented through a single method and that learning should be promoted through different types of input (e.g., discussions, poster-making exercises, reflective writing assignments, picture book readings).
Based on the study’s findings, in order to facilitate the implementation of critical literacy, EFL educators need to bear in mind the following principles. First, the materials employed and issues discussed should be focused on students themselves, i.e., they need to take students’ personal experiences as one part of classroom resources. Second, language learning should be seen not only as a development of language, but also as a process of socialization in which students become more conscious of who they are outside the classroom. Third, future critical literacy research should be encouraged in other English learning contexts, such as English Writing, English Reading, and English Literature. This study concludes that when a critical literacy-oriented classroom draws on multiple learning sources, students are helped to develop a different understanding of their identities and to respond critically to the world with their own thought.


Keywords: picture books, comic-format fairy tales, multiple learning sources,
social practice, critical literacy

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .....................................................................i
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................v
LIST OF TABLES ...............................................................ix
LIST OF FIGURES ..............................................................x

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION .................................................................1
Background of the Study ......................................................1
Statement of the Problem .....................................................4
Purpose of the Study .........................................................5
Research Questions ...........................................................6
Definition of Terms ..........................................................6
Significance of the Study ....................................................8

CHAPTER TWO – LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................10
Critical Literacy ...........................................................10
The Emergence of Critical Literacy ..........................................10
Notions of Critical Literacy ................................................11
Critical Literacy Instruction ...............................................13
Literacy as a Social Practice ...............................................13
Multiple Identities during the Learning Process .............................15
Language development as Active Being ........................................16
Models of the Critical Curriculum ...........................................17
Research Studies Related to Critical Literacy ...............................20
Research Studies Conducted outside Taiwan ..........................20
Research Studies Conducted in Taiwan ...............................22
Multiliteracies .............................................................25
New Literacies in the Twenty-First Century ..........................25
Multiliteracies and the New London Group ............................26
Pedagogical Implications of Multiliteracies .........................30
Picture Books ...............................................................32
The Benefits of Using Picture Books .................................32
The Criteria for Choosing Picture Books .............................35
The Benefits of Using Comic Books ...................................38

CHAPTER THREE –MOTHODOLOGY ..................................................42
Mixed-Methods Research Case Study ...........................................42
Setting and Participants ....................................................43
Course Materials ............................................................44
Data Collection..............................................................45
Triangulation and Data Analysis ............................................47
Quantitative Data Sources ...................................................48
Qualitative Data Sources ....................................................48
Trustworthiness of Information .............................................49
The Three Activities in the Research .......................................50
The Pilot Study ............................................................52

CHAPTER FOUR –DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE ACTIVITIES ...........................54
Description of the Nonconventional Fairy Tale Activity ..................... 54
First Session of the Activity ......................................... 54
Second and Third Sessions of the Activity ..........................….. 55
Fourth Session of the Activity .........................................56
Description of the Multiple-Perspective Activity ............................57
First Session of the Activity ..........................................57
Second and Third Sessions of the Activity ..............................58
Fourth Session of the Activity .........................................60
Description of the Gender Awareness Activity ................................61
First Two Sessions of the Activity .....................................61
Two Follow-Up Sessions of the Activity ......................................63

CHAPTER FIVE –DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS (I) ..................................65
Quantitative Data Analysis of the Three Activities .........................66
Qualitative Data Analysis of the First Activity ............................68
Qualitative Data Analysis of the Second Activity ...........................78
Qualitative Data Analysis of the Third Activity ............................91

CHAPTER SIX –DISCUSSION AND FINDINGS (II) .................................101

CHAPTER SEVEN –CONCLUSION .................................................118
Pedagogical Implications ..................................................121
Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research .......................127

REFERENCES ................................................................130

APPENDICES ................................................................151
Appendix A Lesson Plan for the Nonconventional Fairy Tale Activity ......151
Appendix B Lesson Plan for the Multiple-Perspectives Activity ...........153
Appendix C Lesson Plan for the Frailty, Thy Name Should Not Be Woman Activity ……………………………………….................................................155
Appendix D A Comic Poster ...............................................158
Appendix E Vocabulary Worksheet .........................................159
Appendix F A Discussion Sheet ...........................................161
Appendix G Guidelines for Pair Dialogue ............................162
Appendix H Worksheet for Four Groups ....................................163
Appendix I Common Character Traits .....................................164
Appendix J A Character Web Poster ......................................165
Appendix K Two Questions for Pair Discussion Sheet .......................166
Appendix L A Perspective Journal .........................................167
Appendix M Four Reading Comprehension Questions for The Story of Fa Mulan..168
Appendix N A List of Occupations .........................................169
Appendix O Reading Comprehension Questions for Princess Smartypants ........170
Appendix P Worksheet for Princess Smartypants .............................171
Appendix Q A Group Poster ................................................172
Appendix R A Writing Assignment for the Third Activity ....................173
Appendix S A Poster for The Ugly Duckling .................................175
Appendix T The Questionnaire on Attitudes towards Critical Literacy Instruction in Multiple Learning Resources (English Version) ................176
Appendix U The Questionnaire on Attitudes towards Critical Literacy Instruction in Multiple Learning Resources (Chinese Version) ................181
Appendix V Frequencies of Responses (in %), Mean (M), and Standard Deviations (SD) to the Questionnaire ...................................................184
Appendix W Interview Protocol .............................................187


LIST OF TABLES

Table 5.1 Description of Students’ Responses to Item 8 ................66
Table 5.2 Description of Students’ Responses to Item 21 ...............67
Table 5.3 Description of Students’ Responses to Item 35 ...............67
Table 5.4 Categories of the Issues in Perspective Journal and Student Number ......................................................................87
Table 5.5 Summaries of Selected Students’ Perspective Journals .........89
Table 6.1 Description of Students’ Responses to Item 11 ..............102
Table 6.2 Description of Students’ Responses to Item 26 ..............102
Table 6.3 Description of Students’ Responses to Item 10 .............103
Table 7.1 Resources from Students ...................................122


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 An Instructional Model of Critical Literacy ...................18
Figure 3.1 Data Collection Procedures ...................................47

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Selected Books
Babette, C. (1997). Princess Smartypants. New York: The Putnam & Grosset Group.
Browne, A. (2001). Voices in the Park. New York: DK Publishing.
San Souci, R. D. (2000). Fa Mulan: The Story of a Woman Warrior. Illustrated by Jean and Mou-Sien Tseng. New York: Hyperion Books for Children.
Vankin, J. (1999). The Big Book of Grimm. New York: DC Comics.

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