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研究生:蔡政修
研究生(外文):Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu
論文名稱:台灣灰鯨類化石形態及親緣關係研究
論文名稱(外文):Morphology and phylogenetic relationships of gray whale-like fossils from Taiwan
指導教授:林良恭林良恭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Liang-Kong
口試委員:張鈞翔周蓮香姚秋如林仲平
口試委員(外文):Chang, Chun-HsiangChou, Lien-SiangYao, Chiou-JuLin, Chung-Ping
口試日期:100年6月7號
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:EschrichtiidaephylogenyfossilPenghu Channelpaleobiology
外文關鍵詞:灰鯨親緣化石澎湖海溝古生物
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本研究針對兩件從台灣與澎湖間的海底所打撈的海洋哺乳動物化石頭骨進行形態及親緣關係研究。依據形態特徵,如上枕骨(supraoccipital)的突起、副枕突(paroccipital process)指向後方和上枕骨邊界成直線等,都說明了這兩件化石標本可能屬於鬚鯨亞目(Mysticeti)內灰鯨科(Eschrichtiidae)的物種。為確認本研究之兩件化石標本於鬚鯨亞目的親緣關係,在鬚鯨亞目的七個科(包含十四個物種、兩件新發現的化石標本)進行比對及分析,其中這七個科包含了鬚鯨亞目四個現生科,Balaenopteridae(六種)、Balaenidae(兩種)、Neobalaenidae(一種)、Eschrichtiidae(兩種)和三個已滅絕的科,Aetiocetidae(一種)、Eomysticetidae(一種)、Cetotheriidae(一種)。使用三十六個頭骨形態特徵,利用簡約法則 (Parsimony analysis)和貝氏方法 (Bayesian analysis),將各個物種取得的特徵資料進行分析,本研究之兩件新發現的化石標本和另兩種灰鯨(現生種 Eschrichtius robustus、化石種 Eschrichtioides gastaldii)歸為同一類群,證實這兩件化石頭骨標本為灰鯨科的物種無異。從親緣地理的角度來看,這兩件新發現的化石標本較接近現生種 Eschrichtius robustus,而不是目前只有在地中海地區發現的化石種 Eschrichtioides gastaldii,因此在本研究暫定這兩件化石標本為 Eschrichtius sp.。另一部分,探討灰鯨科和鬚鯨亞目其它科的親緣關係,本結果支持了灰鯨科和已滅絕的 Cetotheriidae 親緣關係較接近。
Two extraordinary partial posterior skulls dredged from sea bottom between Taiwan and Penghu Islands were recognized and presented in this study. According to the morphological characters, such as paired tuberosities on the supraoccipital, paroccipital processes pointed posteriorly, and lateral border of supraoccipital straight etc., these two fossil skulls could be assigned into eschrichtiids (gray whale) of Mysticeti. To confirm the phylogenetic relationships between these two newly-discovered fossil specimens and species of Mysticeti, four extant families (Balaenopteridae, Balaenidae, Neobalaenidae, and Eschrichtiidae) and three extinct families (Aetiocetidae, Eomysticetidae, and Cetotheriidae) are included in this study. Thirty-six characters from these two partial skulls are selected and the compiled data collecting from each species were performed with parsimony and Bayesian analyses which both reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships. This result showed that these two skulls are grouped with living gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and one extinct species (Eschrichtioides gastaldii) which is a newly-established genus and species of Eschrichtiidae. From the phylogeographic perspective, these two specimens probably are closer to extant species, Eschrichtius robustus, rather extinct species, Eschrichtioides gastaldii, found around Mediterranean region only and therefore they were assigned to Eschrichtius sp. provisionally. Furthermore, this study also discussed the interrelationship among Mysticeti and the result supported the closer relationship of Eschrichtiidae and Cetotheriidae.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..................................................................................i

ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................1

INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................4

MATERIALS AND METHODS........................................................................11

RESULTS.......................................................................................................19

DISCUSSIONS...............................................................................................27

CONCLUSIONS.............................................................................................52

REFERENCES...............................................................................................53

FIGURES.......................................................................................................69

TABLE............................................................................................................86

APPENDIX.....................................................................................................88
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