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研究生:彭博
研究生(外文):Peng, Po
論文名稱:俏房客?兩種蜘蛛捕食者間以體色為媒介之互利作用
論文名稱(外文):Pretty lodgers? Color-mediated mutualistic interactions between two Araneae predators.
指導教授:卓逸民卓逸民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tso, I-Min
口試委員:楊恩誠林仲平
口試委員(外文):Yang, En-ChengLin, Chung-Ping
口試日期:07/20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:英文
論文頁數:58
中文關鍵詞:偷竊寄生蜘蛛互利共生體色
外文關鍵詞:kleptoparasitic spidermutualismbody coloration
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中文摘要
蜘蛛之間的關係通常被認為是競爭、捕食或寄生,而這種主觀的想法,使得很少有人會認為互利共生關係會存在於不同種蜘蛛之間。在此研究中我們探討宿主蜘蛛─雲斑蛛(Cyrtophora)與其網上的偷竊寄生蜘蛛─裂額寄居姬蛛 (Argyrodes fissifrons)之間的關係。後者通常被描述成偷竊寄生者,藉由從其它的蜘蛛網上竊取獵物來獲得食物。相較於雲斑蛛宿主的暗褐色體色,裂額寄居姬蛛之體色非常顯眼。前人研究顯示,結網性蜘蛛其體色對獵物之可能功能為誘引獵物靠近,進而增加蜘蛛自身之捕食效益。在此研究中,我探討具醒目銀斑之裂額寄居姬蛛是否可色誘夜行性昆蟲至宿主網上,進而增加宿主之覓食效益。我們在2009年之夏季在位於蘭嶼忠愛橋下森林之樣區對雲斑蛛的網進行操控實驗,實驗的處理依裂額寄居姬蛛及雲斑蛛之存在而設計了四種處理,並以紅外線攝影機於夜間記錄不同處理的雲斑蛛網其獵物獲得量。實驗結果顯示,不論雲斑蛛宿主是否存在,雲斑蛛網皆可因裂額寄居姬蛛之存在而增加其獵物獲得量。此田野實驗結果指出裂額寄居姬蛛其存在是對雲斑蛛宿主有幫助的,且這兩種蜘蛛之間之交互關係可能為互利共生。在接下來的研究中,則探討此種交互關係是否因裂額寄居姬蛛其醒目體色為媒介所達成的。我們在2010年之夏季在位於蘭嶼忠愛橋下森林之樣區對裂額寄居姬蛛的體色進行操控實驗。處理組之蜘蛛其醒目銀斑覆以黑色塗料,並以紅外線攝影機於夜間記錄其與控制組〈蜘蛛體表黑色部份塗上顏料〉的雲斑蛛網其獵物獲得量。當裂額寄居姬蛛體表光訊號因黑色塗料而改變時,雲斑蛛宿主網的獵物攔截率會顯著地降低。本研究指出雲斑蛛宿主與裂額寄居姬蛛之間的交互關係可能為互利共生,並且是以體表光訊號作為媒介而達成的。
關鍵字:偷竊寄生蜘蛛、互利共生、體色
Abstract
The interactions between different species of spiders are usually in the form of competition, predation, or parasitism. Mutualistic interactions involving different species of spiders have rarely been reported. In this study, I examined the nature of interactions between the kleptoparasitic spiders, Argyrodes fissifrons, and their host spiders, Cyrtophora. The body coloration of A. fissifrons is very conspicuous, while that of the Cyrtophora hosts is dark brown. Previous studies showed that conspicuous body colorations of spiders may function as visual lures to prey. In this study I tested whether the conspicuous body coloration of A. fissifrons functioned as a visual lure to attract prey to the webs of Cyrtophora hosts. In a field experiment performed in the summer of 2009, the presence of kleptoparasites was manipulated and prey catching rates of host webs were monitored by infrared video cameras. The presence of A. fissifrons increased the prey catching rates of Cyrtophora webs, no matter the host spiders were present or not. The result of this field experiment indicates that the presence of A. fissifrons is beneficial to Cyrtophora hosts and the interactions between these two spiders might be mutualistic. In the summer of 2010, I tested whether such mutualistic interaction was mediated by the bright body coloration of A. fissifrons. I manipulated the chromatic properties of A. fissifrons by covering the bright body parts with dark paint. The effect of such treatment was monitored by infrared video cameras. The prey interception rate was significantly reduced when the conspicuous color signal of A. fissifrons was altered by black paint. Results of two field experiments thus demonstrate that there is a mutualistic interaction between Cyrtophora hosts and A. fissifrons, which is mediated through conspicuous colors of the latter.
Keywords: kleptoparasitic spider, mutualism, body coloration

Contents
誌謝 i
中文摘要 iii
Abstract iv
Introduction 1
Materials and methods 8
The study site 8
The study organism 8
Field manipulative studies 10
Quantifying how spider colors were viewed by nocturnal insects 13
Statistical analyses 17
Results 19
Manipulating color signals of spider in the field 19
Quantifying how colors were viewed by nocturnal insects 22
Discussion 23
References 32
Tables 41
Figures 47

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