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研究生:童婉萍
研究生(外文):Wan-Ping Tung
論文名稱:艾氏樹蛙重疊子代的親子關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):Parentage of overlapping offspring of Kurixalus eiffingeri
指導教授:關永才關永才引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yeong-Choy Kam
口試委員:于宏燦黃文山陳怡惠
口試委員(外文):Hon-Tsen YuWen-San HuangYi-Huey Chen
口試日期:2011-07-21
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:重複產卵親子關係生殖策略微衛星基因座艾氏樹蛙
外文關鍵詞:clutches overlapparentagereproductive strategymicrosatellite locusKurixalus eiffingeri
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動物短時間內重複利用舊巢進行生殖可能會導致兩批不同發育期數的子代重疊,確定兩批子代的親子關係有助於了解重複產卵親代撫育行為及其隱含的生殖策略。本研究目的是利用5個微衛星基因座作為遺傳標記,分析由野外採集的艾氏樹蛙(Kurixalus eiffingeri)重複產卵兩批子代的親子關係。利用COLONY 2.0軟體分析23窩重複產卵的樣本,結果顯示兩批子代的親子關係共有8種組合,以異父異母和部分同父異母的窩數最多(n=7),推測可能與親代缺乏巢防衛有關。參與產第一批子代的雄蛙再利用同一竹筒與否的比例各佔約50%,但大部分產第一批子代的雌蛙都不會再利用同一竹筒(73.9%)。導致成蛙再利用竹筒比例的不同,可能是成蛙在面臨好的生殖資源有限及蝌蚪競爭權衡下,成蛙產卵地點選擇的策略不同所造成。此外,雌蛙餵食的間隔時間與生理限制可能是導致雌蛙再利用竹筒比例低的原因。
結合野外雌蛙撫育行為的觀察及親子關係分析的結果顯示:重疊子代有同時由兩批子代的親代餵食,也有只由產第一批子代(蝌蚪)或第二批子代(卵)的親代餵食。因此,艾氏樹蛙重複產卵可能同時具有合作生殖與寄生生殖的策略,且不排除可能存在無親緣關係或親緣關係度低的協助照顧者(helper)。

Renesting within a short time span can result in overlapping offspring. To unveil the genetic relationship between parents and offspring is important to understand the reproductive strategies and parental care of adults. The purpose of my study was to identify the genetic relationship between overlapping clutches and adult frogs of Kurixalus eiffingeri using five microsatellite DNA markers. The COLONY 2.0 program deduced eight different types of parentage among overlapping offspring in that different parents and partially the same father but different mothers were most abundant (n= 7). A lack of nest defense by adult frogs during larvae period may in part account for the varied patterns of parentage in overlapping offspring. Results of parentage analyses revealed that about equal amount of tadpole-occupied stumps were used by the same or different males, which may be related to the tradeoff between the quality of stumps and inter-clutch competition between tadpoles. In contrast, majority of tadpole-occupied stumps were used by different females (73.9%), which may be related to females’ feeding schemes and physiological constraints.
By combining field observation and parentage analyses of overlapping offspring, I found that overlapping offspring can be either fed by the mother of the first or second cohort of offspring, or both mothers. Furthermore, it is possible that the overlapping offspring may also be fed by genetically unrelated females.

中文摘要(1)
英文摘要(2)
前言(3)
文獻探討(7)
材料與方法(16)
結果(24)
討論(30)
總結(38)
參考文獻(39)
表目(49)
圖目(50)
表(51)
圖(58)
附錄(63)


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