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研究生:張純婉
研究生(外文):Chang, Chun-Wan
論文名稱:醫療院所內益康花園的恢復性知覺與生心理效益之研究—以台中榮總為例
論文名稱(外文):Restorative Perception and Psychophysiological Benefits of Healing Garden: A Case of Taichung Veterans General Hospital
指導教授:黃章展黃章展引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Chang-Chan
口試委員:歐聖榮李英弘蔡淑美沈 立黃章展
口試委員(外文):Ou, Sheng-JungLi, Ying-HungTsai, Su-MeiShen, LiHuang, Chang-Chan
口試日期:2011-06-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:景觀學系
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:景觀設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:153
中文關鍵詞:益康花園注意力恢復理論恢復性環境生心理效益知覺
外文關鍵詞:healing gardenattention restoration theory (ART)restorative environmentperception of psychophysiological benefits
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過去研究顯示,自然環境和景觀已證實具有恢復性的特質,當使用者處於自然環境或景觀,能夠產生生理以及心理正面效益的知覺;過去研究結果亦顯示,醫療院所戶外景觀空間對於使用者生心理效益具有正面之影響,然而,對於如何導入益康花園的設計準則,以改善醫療院所戶外庭園景觀的品質,提升其恢復性特質與生心理效益,尚欠缺實證研究的支持。因此,本研究依據Kaplan與Kaplan(1989)恢復性環境的觀點作為其理論架構切入點,主要目的在探討使用者對於現有醫療院所庭園與模擬益康花園在恢復性環境知覺、與知覺的生心理效益是否有差異。
為了比較益康花園與現有庭園在環境恢復性知覺與生心理效益上的差異,先以研究基地現況照片為背景,加入益康花園的特質模擬出益康花園的照片。研究採自填式問卷進行調查,抽樣方式採便利抽樣的形式,於台中榮民總醫院所選取的兩處戶外綠地空間進行抽樣,對象則為庭園綠地空間之使用者(病患、家屬、醫護人員),共計有效樣本為338位。研究採單組前後測的設計,先請受測者針對目前所處的醫療院所現況庭園,以問卷調查方式測量其對醫療院所庭園恢復性環境特質的知覺,與使用者生心理效益的知覺,接著再次請受測者觀看模擬益康花園的彩色相片後,並告知受測者假設正處於這張照片的環境中,再次評估醫療院所模擬益康花園環境的恢復性及生心理效益。
整體研究結果顯示,使用者對於台中榮民總醫院「現有庭園」恢復性環境特質的知覺皆不高,使用者僅感受到普通的「遠離」效果,至於「延展性」、「魅力性」、及「相容性」則不容易讓使用者感受到;而使用者對於台中榮民總醫院「模擬益康花園」確實感受較高的恢復性環境特質,其中又以「遠離」特質感受最高,而且對於使用者生心理效益之影響亦顯著高於「現有庭園」。在「模擬益康花園」恢復性環境的知覺上,以「魅力性」特質中「認知」的部分為提升幅度最多之處,「遠離」和「延展性」則為提升幅度最少之處;在生心理效益的知覺上,「模擬益康花園」比「現有庭園」更能夠讓使用者感受到正向的生理效益、以及正向心理效益,而且使用者對於心理效益之「壓力」舒緩知覺,其提升幅度高於心理效益之「情緒」舒緩知覺。當使用者對於醫療院所「現有庭園」恢復性環境之「遠離」、「相容性」、和「延展性」特質知覺愈高,而「模擬益康花園」恢復性環境之「遠離」和「相容性」特質知覺愈高,對心理情緒與心理壓力舒緩效益的知覺愈佳。
依據研究結果,本研究建議醫療院所未來對於戶外庭園綠地空間,應納入包括整體性、水景、多樣性的植栽、具神秘感的路徑設計、公共和私密空間、可及性與安全性、以及戶外設施的提供等,並將這些元素以「整合性設計」手法模擬出具恢復性環境特質的益康花園作為設計之參考依據,對於病患、家屬、以及醫護人員等使用者在生心理效益感受上有更佳之提升效果。
Previous studies have shown that natural environment and landscape has restorative qualities. People can perceive positive physiological and psychological benefits when they are in the natural environment or landscape. It was also shown that healing gardens surrounding the hospitals have positive effects on users’ psychophysiological benefits. However, how to import healing garden design guidelines to improve landscape quality of outdoor garden within medical facilities and enhance its restorative qualities and psychophysiological benefits still lacks supports from empirical studies. Therefore, based on Kaplan & Kaplan’s (1989) theory, this study was to explore the difference between the existing gardens and the simulated healing gardens in a medical institution regarding users’ restorative perception and perception of psychophysiological benefits.
In order to compare the existing garden with simulated healing garden on the perceptions of restorativeness and psychophysiological benefits, the healing garden was presented by a photo which was simulated by using the photo of the existing garden as the background, and then adding into the characteristics of healing gardens. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire. The study subjects comprised patients, their families, and medical staff A convenient sampling survey was conducted at two gardens within Taichung Veterans General Hospita and 338 valid questionnaires were obtained. This study employed a one-group pretest-posttest design. In the first stage, the subjects were asked how they feel about the existing garden in terms of restorative perception and perception of psychophysiological benefits; in the second stage, the subjects were requested to watch a photo of the simulated healing garden, and then report how they feel about the simulated garden in terms of restorative perception and perception of psychophysiological benefits.
It was found that both the restorative perception and the perception of psychophysiological benefits were higher for the simulated healing garden than for the existing garden. The phenomena are especially significant in the cognitive aspect of fascination and perception of pressure mitigation. Moreover, users reported higher emotional and pressure mitigation effects when they had higher perception on “being away” and “compatibility” for the simulated healing garden.
Based on the findings, it was suggested that in order to improve the perception of psychophysiological benefits for patients, their families, and medical staff, the characteristics of healing gardens should be integrated into the design of gardens in the medical institution. These characteristics include integrity, water features, diversity of planting, pathways with mysterious features, public and private spaces, accessibility and security, and appropriate outdoor facilities.
目 錄
中文摘要--------------------------------------------------------------------------------Ⅰ
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------------III
序 言---------------------------------------------------------------------------------V
目 錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------VII
圖 次--------------------------------------------------------------------------------IX
表 次---------------------------------------------------------------------------------X



第一章 緒論-------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究動機--------------------------------------------------------------------1
第二節 研究目的--------------------------------------------------------------------6
第三節 研究範圍與對象---------------------------------------------------------------6
第四節 研究限制--------------------------------------------------------------------6
第五節 研究名詞定義-----------------------------------------------------------------7
第二章 文獻回顧--------------------------------------------------------------------10
第一節 益康花園---------------------------------------------------------------------------10
第二節 景觀生心理效益---------------------------------------------------------------11
第三節 恢復性環境------------------------------------------------------------------37
第四節 療癒設計--------------------------------------------------------------------44
第五節 景觀模擬--------------------------------------------------------------------53
第三章 研究方法---------------------------------------------------------------------------57
第一節 研究架構與假設---------------------------------------------------------------57
第二節 研究設計---------------------------------------------------------------------58
第三節 測量工具---------------------------------------------------------------------69
第四節 資料處理分析-----------------------------------------------------------------75
第四章 結果分析---------------------------------------------------------------------------79
第一節 樣本描述---------------------------------------------------------------------79
第二節 研究變項測量結果--------------------------------------------------------------84
第三節 假設檢定結果------------------------------------------------------------------98
第五章 結論與建議-------------------------------------------------------------------------120
第一節 結論------------------------------------------------------------------------120
第二節 討論------------------------------------------------------------------------122
第三節 建議------------------------------------------------------------------------126
參考文獻---------------------------------------------------------------------------------130
附 錄---------------------------------------------------------------------------144
附錄一 益康庭園預試研究問卷----------------------------------------------------------144
附錄二 益康庭園正式研究問卷----------------------------------------------------------149



圖 次
圖3-1-1 研究架構圖-----------------------------------------------------------------58
圖3-2-1 基地一、二現況平面圖--------------------------------------------------------60
圖3-2-2 基地一現況照片1-------------------------------------------------------------61
圖3-2-3 基地一現況照片2-------------------------------------------------------------61
圖3-2-4 基地二現況照片1-------------------------------------------------------------61
圖3-2-5 基地二現況照片2-------------------------------------------------------------61
圖3-2-6 基地一、二模擬益康花園平面圖--------------------------------------------------62
圖3-2-7 基地一現況照片--------------------------------------------------------------63
圖3-2-8 基地一相片模擬照片-----------------------------------------------------------63
圖3-2-9 基地二現況照片---------------------------------------------------------------64
圖3-2-10 基地二相片模擬照片-----------------------------------------------------------64
圖4-3-1 醫療院所現有庭園對生理效益影響之迴歸分析殘差分佈圖-------------------------------110
圖4-3-2 醫療院所現有庭園對心理情緒舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析殘差分佈--------------------------111
圖4-3-3 醫療院所現有庭園對心理壓力舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析殘差分佈圖------------------------113
圖4-3-4 醫療院所模擬益康花園對生理效益影響之迴歸分析殘差分佈圖----------------------------115
圖4-3-5 醫療院所模擬益康花園對心理情緒舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析殘差分佈圖---------------------116
圖4-3-6 醫療院所模擬益康花園對心理壓力舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析殘差分佈圖---------------------118



表 次
表2-1-1 庭園與益康花園之異同比較-------------------------------------------------------14
表2-2-1 治療性景觀對於病患的生理效益----------------------------------------------------19
表2-2-2 治療性景觀對於病患的心理效益----------------------------------------------------22
表2-2-3 治療性景觀對於非病患的生心理效益-------------------------------------------------33
表2-4-1 實質環境特徵(元素)整理表------------------------------------------------------48
表2-5-1 相片評估法用於恢復性環境--------------------------------------------------------56
表2-5-2 相片評估法用於生心理效益--------------------------------------------------------56
表3-2-1 複迴歸統計樣本數計算表----------------------------------------------------------68
表3-3-1 醫療院所庭園恢復性環境的知覺量表題項修正前、後對照表--------------------------------71
表3-3-2 醫療院所庭園恢復性環境特質的知覺量表----------------------------------------------73
表3-3-3 使用者生心理效益的知覺量表-------------------------------------------------------74
表4-1-1 台中榮民總醫院抽樣問卷數量表-----------------------------------------------------79
表4-1-2 台中榮民總醫院使用者基本資料描述--------------------------------------------------81
表4-1-3 台中榮民總醫院空間的使用情形-----------------------------------------------------83
表4-2-1 醫療院所現有庭園恢復性環境特質的知覺次數分配表(前測)-------------------------------86
表4-2-2 醫療院所模擬益康花園恢復性環境特質的知覺次數分配表(後測)---------------------------89
表4-2-3 使用者生心理效益的知覺次數分配表(前測)-------------------------------------------92
表4-2-4 使用者生心理效益的知覺次數分配表(後測)-------------------------------------------96
表4-3-1 使用者對於醫療院所現有庭園與模擬益康花園之恢復性環境知覺成對樣本t檢定-----------------102
表4-3-2 使用者對於醫療院所現有庭園與模擬益康花園之生心理效益知覺成對樣本t檢定-----------------108
表4-3-3 台中榮民總醫院現有庭園對心理情緒舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析共線性診斷---------------------112
表4-3-4 台中榮民總醫院現有庭園對心理情緒舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析------------------------------112
表4-3-5 台中榮民總醫院現有庭園對心理壓力舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析共線性診斷---------------------114
表4-3-6 台中榮民總醫院現有庭園對心理壓力舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析------------------------------114
表4-3-7 台中榮民總醫院模擬益康花園對心理情緒舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析共線性診斷------------------116
表4-3-8 台中榮民總醫院模擬益康花園對心理情緒舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析---------------------------117
表4-3-9 台中榮民總醫院模擬益康花園對心理壓力舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析共線性診斷診斷---------------119
表4-3-10 台中榮民總醫院模擬益康花園對心理壓力舒緩效益影響之迴歸分析表--------------------------119
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