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研究生:王建勳
研究生(外文):Jian-Syun Wang
論文名稱:聚丙烯/聚烯烴彈性體(PP/POE)及其無鹵阻燃摻混體特性研究
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of Polypropylene /Polyolefin Elastic and It’s Non-halogen Fire-retardant Blends
指導教授:莊富盛莊富盛引用關係
指導教授(外文):Fu-Sheng Chuang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:萬能科技大學
系所名稱:材料科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:聚丙烯聚烯烴彈性體摻混無鹵阻燃衝擊強度
外文關鍵詞:Polypropylenepolyolefin elastomerblendhalogen-free flame-retardantimpact strength
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聚丙烯(PP)為泛用塑膠之一,雖然機械強度高,但其伸度與抗衝擊性不佳,因此研究中以雙螺桿混練機,將聚丙烯與5~40wt%的聚烯烴彈性體(POE)摻混,以改善聚丙烯的伸度與抗衝擊性,而發展具伸度與抗衝擊性能的PP/POE摻混體。此外,目前由於歐盟逐漸對於阻燃的材質要求無鹵素性,因此在摻混體中加入有效的無鹵阻燃劑(20phr)製備無鹵阻燃的PP/POE摻混體。研究中原材料及摻混體進行各種物性測試,包含熔融指數(MI)、相轉移與相容性、抗張強度與衝擊強度等探討。研究結果顯示POE含量對摻混體的MI值具有線性的影響,但添加阻燃劑後,各摻混體的MI值上升。在DSC與DMA分析顯示,PP/POE為兩相結構,呈現不相容,但可於雙螺桿混練機中,在適當的條件下可摻混均勻分布,而達到混溶性。由於PP/POE摻混體呈現兩相結構,因此POE以顆粒的型態分散於PP的母體中;而在POE顆粒介於0.1~1um,呈現的橡膠增韌PP補強型態,有助於摻混體的抗張性質的提升。然而,含有阻燃劑PP/POE摻混體由於產生嚴重的不相容與界面現象,使這些阻燃性摻混體抗張強性質下降。此外,適當的混入POE與PP中,可顯著地改善PP的衝擊強度與伸度。
Polypropylene (PP) was typical plastic; although it had high mechanical strength, but its elongation and impact resistance was poor. Thus, the polypropylene in this study was blended with 5 to 40wt% polyolefin elastomer (POE) in the twin-screw mixing machine in order to improve the elongation of polypropylene and impact resistance and development a PP/POE blend with elongation and impact resistance. Moreover, the EU is now gradually requirements for halogen-free flame-retardant material, so the PP/POE blend was also adding the halogen-free flame retardant for preparation of flame retardant PP/POE blends. The properties of raw materials and all blends, including the melt index (MI), phase transfer and compatibility, tensile strength and impact strength, were tested by various instruments. The results showed that the POE content in the PP/POE blends on the MI value has a linear effect, but the flame retardant in the PP/POE blends is increase the MI value. In the DSC and DMA analysis, PP/POE blends present two-phase structure, which has immiscibility. However, the blends in the Twin-screw mixing machine at a suitable condition can be mixing to be the compatible materials. Because the PP/POE blends have two-phase structure, POE particles were dispersed in the PP matrix; therefore, as the POE particles between 0.1 ~ 1um, the PP/POE presented the rubber toughening PP reinforcement which improve the tensile properties of PP. However, the flame retardant containing-PP/POE blends have a serious incompatibility resulted in the interfacial phenomena between PP, POE and the halogen-free flame retardant. Thus, the tensile property for the flame retardant containing- blends were decrease. As the POE mixed with PP, the PP can be significantly improved on the impact strength and elongation.
一、前言 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 7
1.3 文獻回顧 8
1.3.1 聚丙烯鏈的結構 8
1.3.2 丙烯-乙烯共聚合物(PER,Propylene-ethylene copolymer )的特性 9
1.3.3 膨脹型阻燃劑 10
二、研究理論 13
2.1高分子摻混原理 13
2.2 高分子共混物形態與結構 15
2.2.1 高分子共混物形態與結構的基本類型 15
2.2.2 相容性對形態結構的影響 16
2.3動態機械性質 18
2.4燃燒性能與燃燒要素 21
2.5阻燃理論 22
2.5.1縮合理論 22
2.5.2氣相論 23
2.5.3覆蓋論 23
2.5.4熱論 24
2.6 無鹵阻燃體系 25
2.6.1 磷系阻燃劑 25
2.6.2 有機磷系 25
2.6.3 氮系阻燃劑 26
三、實驗 28
3.1實驗流程 28
3.2實驗材料 29
3.3實驗儀器與設備 31
3.3.1實驗設備 31
3.3.2實驗儀器 31
3.4實驗方法製備 32
3.4.1聚丙烯/聚烯烴彈性體(PP/POE)聚摻合體製備 32
3.5實驗測試 35
3.5.1熔融流動指數儀(MI) 35
3.5.2掃描式熱微差卡式(DSC) 35
3.5.3熱動態分析儀 (DMA) 35
3.5.4萬能拉伸強力試驗機 (MTS) 35
3.5.5掃描式電子顯微鏡 (SEM) 35
3.5.6衝擊試驗機 36
四、結果與討論 37
4.1熔融指數 37
4.2相轉變區與相容性 42
4.2.1微差掃描式熱卡計(DSC)分析 42
4.2.2動態黏彈分析 49
4.3 機械性質 64
4.3.1抗張強度與型態 64
4.3.2衝擊強度 80
五、結論 82
參考文獻 84


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