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研究生:李美文
研究生(外文):Mei-Wen Lee
論文名稱:柴油車檢測站作業勞工多環芳香烴暴露及生物偵測研究
論文名稱(外文):Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure and Biological Monitoring of Diesel Vehicle Inspection Station Workers
指導教授:毛義方毛義方引用關係陳美蓮陳美蓮引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Fang MaoMei-Lien Chen
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立陽明大學
系所名稱:環境與職業衛生研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:公共衛生學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:99
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:8-羥基-2’-去氧鳥苷8-羥基-2’-去氧鳥苷8-羥基-2’-去氧鳥苷8-羥基-2’-去氧鳥苷8-羥基-2’-去氧鳥苷
外文關鍵詞:Diesel exhaustPM2.5PAHs1-hydroxypyrene8-OHdG
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國際癌症研究署(International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC)在1989年已將柴油廢氣歸類為2A致癌物,並且提出在柴油廢氣中多環芳香烴化合物(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs)是最重要的致突變劑與致癌劑。因此,從事於柴油車排煙檢測站(檢測站)工作之煙度儀器檢查人員(檢查人員),進行柴油車檢測時,作業環境中柴油引擎所排放之柴油廢氣,可能造成的職業危害,值得重視及審慎評估。
本研究目標旨在探討檢測站作業環境與檢查人員個人細懸浮微粒(fine particle, PM2.5)中PAHs濃度,檢查人員尿液中生物指標1-羥基芘(1-hydroxypyrene, 1-OHP)濃度與氧化性傷害指標8-羥基-2’-去氧鳥苷(8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG)濃度,以評估檢查人員暴露水準。本研究以重複測量方式對每站檢測站連續採樣三天,共進行4站檢測站作業環境採樣與28位檢查人員個人採樣,同時並採集檢查人員上班前與下班後之尿液以測定1-OHP濃度與8-OHdG濃度。作業環境採樣與個人採樣均以個人採樣器(personal environmental monitors, PEM)進行PM2.5採樣,並以高效率液相層析儀及螢光偵測器(high performance liquid chromatography /fluorescence detector, HPLC/FLD)分析作業環境與個人採樣PM2.5中PAHs之濃度。作業環境採樣期間同時收集尿液樣本進行生物偵測,並以HPLC/FLD測定生物指標1-OHP;另以酵素免疫分析法(enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA)測定氧化性傷害指標8-OHdG。本研究配對性別、年齡與檢查人員相仿之對照人員共38位,並採集一次對照人員下班後尿液,二組人員均施以問卷調查。最後,使用統計方法控制抽菸、身體質量指數等可能對尿液代謝物造成影響的干擾因素,以增加研究結果之比較性與推論性。
研究結果顯示,檢測站每日環境採樣PM2.5濃度範圍為162.73-183.84 μg/m3,PAHs濃度範圍為9.19-12.36 ng/m3。檢查人員每日個人採樣PM2.5濃度範圍為85.84-94.38 μg/m3,PAHs濃度範圍為3.04-4.11 ng/m3。環境與個人樣本中PAHs濃度與PM2.5濃度具顯著相關性(r = 0.724, p < 0.001),顯示檢測站進行柴油車檢測時,排放柴油廢氣是本研究主要的污染來源,由此可追溯檢測站中檢查人員職業暴露PAHs主要來自柴油廢氣微粒的貢獻。
檢查人員尿液中1-OHP濃度為0.32 ± 0.26 μmol/mol creatinine,對照人員尿液中1-OHP濃度為0.20 ± 0.16 μmol/mol creatinine,二組濃度達到統計上顯著差異(p = 0.006)。探討影響尿液中1-OHP濃度之因素,結果發現檢查人員比對照人員尿液中高出0.164 log10 1-OHP濃度,達到統計上顯著差異(p = 0.029);抽菸者相對於未抽菸者其尿液中高出0.265 log10 1-OHP濃度,也達到統計上顯著差異(p = 0.001);身體質量指數高低對尿液中log10 1-OHP濃度則未達到統計上顯著影響(p = 0.703)。
檢查人員尿液中8-OHdG濃度為8.68 ± 8.23 μg/g creatinine,對照人員尿液中8-OHdG 濃度為5.85 ± 4.14 μg/g creatinine,二組濃度達到統計上顯著差異(p = 0.045)。探討影響尿液中8-OHdG 濃度之因素,結果發現檢查人員比對照人員尿液中高出0.146 log10 8-OHdG 濃度,達到統計上顯著差異(p = 0.042);是否抽菸並未對尿液中 log10 8-OHdG 濃度造成顯著影響(p = 0.328);身體質量指數高低對尿液中log10 8-OHdG 濃度也未達到統計上顯著影響(p = 0.994)。
探討個人空氣樣本和檢查人員尿液中樣本之相關性,分析結果顯示柴油廢氣微粒中log10 PM2.5濃度與log10 PAHs濃度相關係數r為0.642(p < 0.001),log10 PAHs濃度與log10 1-OHP濃度相關係數r為0.245(p = 0.025),log10 PAHs濃度與log10 8-OHdG濃度相關係數r為0.274(p = 0.012),三組均達到統計上顯著相關。
本研究發現檢查人員暴露於柴油廢氣PM2.5之作業環境下,log10 PAHs濃度與log10 1-OHP濃度及log10 8-OHdG濃度均具有顯著相關。此外,使用複迴歸模式與廣義估計方程式分析影響1-OHP濃度的因素,結果發現柴油廢氣PM2.5中PAHs濃度是顯著影響因子;同樣以複迴歸模式與廣義估計方程式分析影響8-OHdG濃度的因素,結果亦發現柴油廢氣PM2.5中PAHs濃度是顯著影響因子。因此,本研究建議外在暴露於柴油廢氣PM2.5中的PAHs濃度下,1-OHP濃度與8-OHdG濃度可作為檢查人員良好的內在劑量的指標與早期生物效應的指標。

In 1989, International Agency for Research on Cancer classified diesel exhaust as a Group 2A carcinogen, and it also indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most important mutagen and carcinogen. Therefore, the diesel exhaust in diesel vehicle emission inspection stations (inspection stations) could cause occupational hazard to the diesel engine exhaust emission inspectors (inspectors) while performing tests.
The objective of this research was to explore 1) PAHs in fine particles (PM2.5) of the workplace environment in inspection stations and inspectors, 2) 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a biological marker, and 3) 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of oxidative damage, in order to assess workers’ exposure concentrations. Repeated measures were conducted in this research to sample the workplace environment and the inspectors. Personal samplings of 28 workers for 3 consecutive days at 4 inspection stations were performed. In addition, workers’ pre-shift and post-shift urine samples were taken to determine 1-OHP and 8-OHdG concentrations. Personal environmental monitors (PEMs) were used to collects PM2.5 samples in workplace air samplings and personal samplings. The high performance liquid chromatography /fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) was utilized to measure concentrations of PAHs in PM2.5 in both the workplace environment and personal samples. During the period of workplace environment sampling, biological monitoring was performed on urine samples, and HPLC/FLD was used to determine concentrations of 1-OHP. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure 8-OHdG. 38 individuals were recruited in the control group after matching by sex and age with the inspectors. One-time post-shift urine samples were collected. Both groups were asked to fill out questionnaires. Statistical methods were conducted in order to adjust confounding factors (e.g. smoking, BMI, etc) of the urine metabolite.
Our research results showed that concentrations for daily ambient air samples of PM2.5 at inspection stations ranged from 162.73 to 183.84 μg/m3. Concentrations for PAHs ranged from 9.19 to 12.36 ng/m3. Concentrations of personal air samples for PM2.5 and PAHs were between 85.84-94.38 μg/m3 and 3.04-4.11 ng/m3, respectively. The significant association between concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs in ambient and personal air samples (r = 0.724, p &lt; 0.001) demonstrated that diesel exhaust is the main source of pollution at the inspection stations. Therefore, the inspectors’ occupational exposure to PAHs could be attributed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs).
The rurinary 1-OHP concentrations for the inspectors and the control group were 0.32 ± 0.26 μmol/mol creatinine and 0.20 ± 0.16 μmol/mol creatinine, respectively. The difference in concentrations between these two group was statistically significant (p = 0.006). The analysis results of factors affecting 1-OHP in urine samples showed that inspectors’s levels were significantly higher than levels of the control group by 0.164 log10 1-OHP (p = 0.029). The confounding effect of smoking was significantly higher than non-smoking by 0.265 log10 1-OHP (p = 0.001) and the BMI was not a significant confouner (p = 0.703)
The rurinary 8-OHdG concentrations for the inspectors and the control group were 8.68 ± 8.23 μg/g creatinine and 5.85 ± 4.14 μg/g creatinine, respectively. The difference in concentrations between these two group was also statistically significant (p = 0.045). Similar analysis was performed to determine the factors influencing 8-OHdG in urine samples. It was found that the inspectors’ levels were significantly higher than levels of the control group by 0.146 log10 8-OHdG (p = 0.042). Moreover, the confounding effects of smoking (p = 0.328) and BMI (p = 0.994) on 8-OHdG were not significant.
The analysis results of the association between personal air samples and inspectors’ urinary samples indicated that the correlation coefficient (r) between log10 PM2.5 and log10 PAHs in DEPs was significant (r = 0.642, p &lt; 0.001). In addition, the correlation between log10 PAHs and log10 1-OHP (r = 0.245, p = 0.025), and log10 PAHs and log10 8-OHdG (r = 0.274, p = 0.012) were also significant.
Our study found that there were siginificant associations between 1) log10 PAHs and log10 1-OHP, and 2) log10 PAHs and log10 8-OHdG in inspectors exposed to PM2.5 in DEPs (DEP2.5) in the workplace environment. The results of multiple regression and generalized estimating equation analysis revealed that PAHs in DEP2.5 has a significant impact on 1-OHP levels. Furthermore, PAHs in DEP2.5 is also a signifant factor on 8-OHdG concentrations. Therefore, when assessing the extenal exposure to levels of PAHs in DEP2.5, we recommend that concentrations of 1-OHP and 8-OHdG can serve as good biomarkers of internal doses and early biological effects.

摘要 I
Abstract IV
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究背景 1
1-2 研究假說 4
1-3 研究目的 4
1-4 研究架構 5
第二章 文獻探討 7
2-1 柴油車檢測站簡介 7
2-2 柴油引擎廢氣排放 8
2-3 柴油廢氣粒相成份 16
2-4 柴油廢氣氣相成份 19
2-5 暴露PAHs之體內生物指標1-OHP 22
2-6 ROS和8-OHdG 26
2-7 DEPs暴露與8-OHdG 30
2-8 DEPs中PAHs與ROS之關係 31
第三章 材料與方法 34
3-1 作業環境與檢查人員暴露於柴油廢氣PM2.5中PAHs測定 36
3-2 柴油廢氣檢查人員生物偵測尿液中1-OHP測定 48
3-3 柴油廢氣檢查人員生物偵測尿液中8-OHdG測定 53
第四章 結果 56
4-1 作業環境與檢查人員暴露於柴油廢氣PM2.5中PAHs 測定 56
4-2 柴油廢氣檢查人員生物偵測尿液中1-OHP測定 65
4-3 柴油廢氣檢查人員生物偵測尿中8-OHdG測定 74
第五章 討論 88
5-1 作業環境與檢查人員暴露於柴油廢氣PM2.5中PAHs測定 88
5-2 柴油廢氣檢查人員生物偵測尿液中1-OHP測定 91
5-3 柴油廢氣檢查人員生物偵測尿液中8-OHdG測定 96
第六章 結論 107
參考文獻 109
附錄一 問卷 133


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