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研究生:黃晧彰
論文名稱:高層辦公建築物緊急避難模式及火災人命安全評估
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of Emergency Evacuation Model and Life Safety Evaluation in High Rise Office Building Fires
指導教授:吳貫遠吳貫遠引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中央警察大學
系所名稱:消防科學研究所
學門:軍警國防安全學門
學類:警政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:136
中文關鍵詞:高層建築物火災避難人命安全控制體積模式
外文關鍵詞:High-rise buildingFireEvacuationLife SafetyControl volume model
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:337
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  • 下載下載:4
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
現今建築技術日新月異,高層建築物的火災安全已成為全球都市防災的主要議題之一,傳統條列式規範已無法提供有效的安全水準及適當的經濟效益,性能式法規成為全球發展之焦點,避難設計即為消防安全設計中重要之一環。本文以控制體積理論模式為基礎,參酌NFPA避難時間計算之群流理論,將高樓層避難區分成:平面樓層內避難與樓梯內人員避難兩種情境之結合,其為宏觀避難模式中首創使用合流比值為概念建構而成之避難模式。將此理論實際運算一高層辦公建築物之避難時間,並與NFPA手算方式及知名避難軟體SIMULEX之避難結果比較,驗證此模式建構之合理性;此外,以FDS建立一特定高層辦公空間之火災情境,結合控制體積模式模擬所得之滯留人數動態,能夠瞭解在特定危害情境下,各樓層之危害情形,在未來後續研究中能夠藉此擬定最佳的避難策略及逃生路線,進而使高樓消防安全設計更具彈性。
The fire safety of the high-rise building has globally become one of the main topics of urban disaster prevention. Fixed-regulations have been unable to provide effective safety and appropriate economic, so performance-based codes have become the important one of the fire safety engineering designs. Evacuation safety design is an important factor of fire engineering design. In this study, based on control volume model and the calculating method of evacuation time in NFPA fire protection handbook, high-rise building evacuation process can be divided into the evacuation on floors and stairs. It is pioneering to use the concept of merge ratio to build an macroscopic evacuation model. The theory is applied to calculating the evacuation time of a high-rise office building, and the simulation result is compared with outcomes of NFPA calculation method and renowned evacuation simulation software-SIMULEX to demonstrate the feasibility of control volume model. Moreover, we create a specific fire scenario of high-rise office space with FDS and combine it with the numerical variations of the crowds around exits, so that the injury situations of every floor can be realized. From the results, we can draw up the optimal evacuation strategy and evacuation route by the research in the future, and the fire safety design can become more flexible.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 研究範圍與限制 6
第三節 研究方法與流程 8
第二章 文獻回顧 11
第一節 性能式法規-驗證避難安全 12
第二節 避難人員行為特性 22
第三節 避難模式之發展與種類 28
第四節 NFPA高樓人流計算方式 32
第五節 控制體積模式 35
第三章 控制體積模式對高層建築物避難時間之評估 37
第一節 平面樓層之控制體積模式理論及計算步驟 37
第二節 建構高層建築物之控制體積模式 40
第三節 避難時間計算-以某一高樓為例 46
第四節 避難時間模擬結果比較 54
第四章 運用SIMULEX避難模擬軟體分析避難時間 70
第一節 SIMULEX軟體介紹 70
第二節 SIMULEX模擬避難假設 78
第三節 模擬結果 81
第五章 運用FDS電腦模擬火災軟體評估人命安全 98
第一節 FDS模擬軟體介紹 98
第二節 環境狀況 100
第三節 火災狀況 103
第四節 模擬結果與分析 108
第六章 結論與建議 121
第一節 結論 121
第二節 建議 124
附錄A 高樓層建築物避難時間NFPA計算方式說明 126
參考書目 132
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