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研究生:葉安迪
研究生(外文):An-Di Ye
論文名稱:電子鼻與氣相層析同位素質譜儀在縱火劑殘跡鑑識上之應用
論文名稱(外文):Identification of Ignitable Liquids in Extracts from Arson Debris Samples by E-nose and Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-IRMS)
指導教授:張維敦張維敦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Tun Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中央警察大學
系所名稱:鑑識科學研究所
學門:軍警國防安全學門
學類:警政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:196
中文關鍵詞:可燃性液體縱火劑殘跡電子鼻氣相層析同位素質譜法
外文關鍵詞:ignitable liquidsarson debrisE-noseas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometryGC-IRMS
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 下載下載:54
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
有鑑於人為縱火佔火災發生原因之比例甚高,且大多跡證於火場燃燒時的高溫以及滅火時的射水而被破壞殆盡,因此以火災殘跡中縱火劑的鑑定作為法庭上判定是否人為縱火之依據則日趨重要。本研究之目的係著眼於利用電子鼻與氣相層析同位素質譜儀於縱火劑殘跡鑑定上之應用,前者可在最短的時間內鑑定出是否有縱火劑存在,並研判出屬於何種類的可燃性液體,後者則可以使同分類可燃性液體被進一步加以鑑別。
本研究之前處理方法係採用活性碳條頂空吸附/溶劑脫附法,取國內常見18種可燃性油品樣本各30μL滴灑於混凝土塊上,並置入金屬容器內,加溫85℃進行活性碳條24小時之吸附,吸附結果再以1mL二硫化碳脫附溶離,抽取1μL萃取液注射進行快速GC電子鼻以及氣相層析同位素質譜儀之分析。首先以電子鼻先擬定出可分類各油品之分析條件,再配合主成分分析針對18種市面上常見液態可燃性液體的新鮮樣品進行分類,接著再評估新鮮、25%、50%、75%及90%等不同揮發度油品對分析結果之影響。後續針對電子鼻不易區分之油品以及中油、台塑各等級無鉛汽油與柴油油品樣本,再以氣相層析同位素質譜儀進行鑑別分析,並且進行不同地區、不同時間與不同揮發度油品之分析結果評估。
結果顯示:以電子鼻於18種可燃性油品鑑別分析中,其所得到的圖譜可依照譜型之不同可以做大略的分類以達到油品的判別,若無法以肉眼比對之圖譜仍可以利用主成分分析亦可以達到鑑別之目的。在不同揮發度可燃性油品的分析結果顯示,電子鼻配合主成分析法可以分辨各揮發度的油品。氣相層析同位素質譜分析汽油結果顯示,此分析方法可以鑑別不同廠牌同類或同等級之無鉛汽油。對於相同廠牌不同等級之無鉛汽油,以本研究結果目前之條件仍難以有效鑑別,未來若配合進一步的條件評估,此法應仍具有鑑別此類樣本之潛力。
Arson is commonly encountered in fire cases. The physical evidence such as biological samples and fingerprints is frequently destroyed resulting from fire burning and the extinguishing water. In general, identifying ignitable liquid residuses (ILR) in fire debris samples plays the key role in investigating the fire couse. The purpose of this study is focused on the identification of ILR from arson debris samples by the E-nose and the gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS). The E-nose is used to classify ILR in the preliminary stage, and GC-IRMS is futher used to distinguish different classes of gasolines.
The activated charcoal strip is adopted as an adsorbent material to extract ILR from the headspace in the sample container, then it is eluted by using carbon disulfide (CS2). The amount of 30μL for each ignitable liquid is spiked on a concrete substrate which is placed into a metal can with an activated charcoal strip. The container is heat under 85℃ for 24 h. The charcoal strip is eluted with 1mL of CS2 solvent, and 1μL of the eluted solution is injected into E-nose and GC-IRMS respectively. The optimal conditions for the E-nose approach are evaluated prior to the further analysis. The principal component analysis (PCA) builted in E-nose is evaluated for the classification of 18 ignitable liquids based on the two sets of chromatographic results. The degree of evaporation (fresh, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90%) of ignitable liquids can be profiled by PCA analysis. Distinguishing between examples within gasoline class is conducted by the comparsons of δ13C values in GC-IRMS approach.
In the results of this study, the E-nose approach is used for the classification of 18 kinds of ignitable liquids by both visual comparison of total ion chromatograms and PCA protocal. The degree of evaporation of ignitable liquids can also be recognized by E-nose analysis assisted with PCA approach. Resulting data from GC-IRMS analysis indicate that gasolines with different brands can be easily distinguished. However, it is difficult to distinguish different classes of gasolines of the same brand. The GC-IRMS method still has a highly distinguishing power in distinguishing different classess of gasoline of the same brand if sufficient parameters have been selected.
摘要...................................i
Abstract..............................ii
目錄..................................iv
圖目錄...............................vii
表目錄...............................xii
第壹章 緒論.............................1
1.1 研究動機...........................1
1.2 研究目的...........................2
第貳章 文獻探討..........................4
2.1 縱火殘跡之鑑識.......................4
2.1.1 常見縱火劑種類.....................4
2.1.2 縱火劑殘跡之前處理方法..............5
2.1.3 縱火劑種類分析與鑑定方法.............8
2.2 電子鼻之原理與應用...................12
2.2.1 電子鼻之發展與應用.................12
2.2.2 電子鼻之原理及構造.................12
2.3 氣相層析同位素質譜儀之原理與應用.......15
2.3.1 同位素分化作用....................15
2.3.2 氣相層析同位素質譜儀之原理..........18
2.3.3 氣相層析同位素質譜儀於可燃性液體之
應用............................21
第參章 材料與方法.......................23
3.1 實驗設備與器材 ......................23
3.1.1 實驗器材與材料....................23
3.1.2 實驗儀器與設備....................24
3.2 實驗方法...........................26
3.2.1 油品揮發試驗......................26
3.2.2 靜態頂空吸附處理法.................26
3.2.3 模擬燃燒試驗......................27
3.2.4 氣相層析同位素質譜儀測定之品質保證與品質
管制............................27
第肆章 結果與討論.......................29
4.1 電子鼻分析結果與討論.................29
4.1.1 電子鼻最適化分析條件之擬定..........29
4.1.2 不同種類可燃性油品鑑別分析..........30
4.1.3 不同揮發度的可燃性油品鑑別分析.......33
4.1.4 不同廠牌的同類可燃性油品鑑別分析.....41
4.2 氣相層析同位素質譜儀分析結果..........44
4.2.1 品質保證與品質管制................44
4.2.2不同地區及時間的中油無鉛汽油之鑑定分析.47
4.2.3 不同揮發度之無鉛汽油及柴油鑑定分析...81
4.2.4 中油及台塑無鉛汽油模擬燃燒樣本鑑定分
析.............................130
4.2.5 相似油品之鑑定分析................153
第伍章 結論與建議......................163
5.1電子鼻分析縱火殘跡之結論與建議........163
5.2 氣相層析同位素質譜儀分析縱火殘跡之結論與建議..............................164
參考文獻.............................165
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