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研究生:李哲賢
研究生(外文):Lee, JerHsian
論文名稱:先進長程演進網路換手機制之研究
論文名稱(外文):Investigation of Handover Mechanism for LTE-Advanced Networks
指導教授:游國忠
指導教授(外文):Yu, GwoJong
口試委員:張志勇石貴平
口試委員(外文):Chang, ChihYungShih, KueiPing
口試日期:2012-06-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:真理大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:先進長程演進換手機制協同傳輸模糊控制器移動樣式估計
外文關鍵詞:LTE-AdvancedHandover MechanismCoordinated Multi-PointFuzzy Logic ControllerMobility Pattern Estimation
相關次數:
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在行動裝置的普及下,3G無線通訊技術將邁進到4G,與3G技術比較,4G有較高的傳輸速率與低延遲。當使用者在基地台傳輸範圍邊緣時,會執行換手機制,在換手時可能會因為訊號品質不佳產生斷線,或者是使用者遊走在基地台傳輸範圍邊緣時會執行不必要的換手以及產生乒乓效應 (Ping-Pong effect) 導致行動裝置不必要的能源消耗,並且當使用者在城市裡面移動時,可能會因為地理環境 (建築物、巷弄道路、甚至單向道) 限制移動範圍,而在一些地理環境之下會限制使用者的移動模式,讓使用者移動到基地台的傳輸範圍邊緣再移動回來,此時就會產生不必要的換手,所以在換手機制的執行時機是一個重要的議題。為了讓使用者能有更舒適的使用體驗,本論文提出了兩種換手機制改善在基地台傳輸範圍邊緣的訊號品質以及在基地台傳輸範圍邊緣產生的乒乓效應與多餘換手。 第一種機制是協同傳輸 (Coordinated Multi-Point, CoMP) 結合模糊控制器 (Fuzzy Logic Controller) 的換手機制,用來提升使用者在基地台傳輸範圍邊緣的訊號品質,並且利用模糊控制器對於不確定因素的判斷特性,使換手機制能夠適當的在基地台傳輸範圍邊緣換手。第二種機制是利用地理資訊預估使用者移動路徑及蒐集使用者回報的CQI (Channel Quality Information) 。將CQI處理成使用者的移動樣式(Mobility Pattern)的資料庫,往後透過Mobility Pattern的比對,就可以知道目前的使用者移動模式是屬於哪一種類型,預測接下來可能的移動模式,進而利用延遲換手以避免不必要的換手以及乒乓效應的產生,並且透過FFR(Fractional Frequency Reuse)的技術避免干擾的產生,讓使用者在細胞邊緣能有較好的訊號品質。模擬結果顯示本論文所提出的換手演算法對系統效能有顯著的提升效果。
In recent years, the popularity of mobile devices and 3G technology will be evolved to 4G. In comparison with 3G, 4G has advantages of higher data rate and lower transmission latency. When a user executes handover mechanism based on signal strength only in cell edge, it is possible that user experiences call drop and the system performance is degraded due to ping-pong effect and unnecessary handovers. In metropolitan area, user will be geographical constraints of range of movement. If the user mobility pattern can be estimated, then the ping-pong effect can be avoided. In order to provide excellent user experience, two handover mechanisms are proposed in this paper to improve the cell edge signal quality and to avoid ping-pong effect and unnecessary handover. The first one is Fuzzy handover mechanism, which applies Fuzzy Logic Controller to properly enable CoMP mode so that the cell edge signal quality can be improved. The second one is mobility pattern estimation handover mechanism, this mechanism analyze the user reported CQI values, extract mobility pattern, and store the pattern to database. Through CQI sequence matching, eNodeB can predict the type of user mobility and decides whether to perform handover or not. The proposed mechanism is justified by intensive numerical simulation and the results reveals that better system performance is achieved.
目錄
第一章、 簡介 1
第二章、 相關文獻 4
第三章、 LTE/LTE-A技術簡介 6
3.1 LTE/LTE-A架構 6
3.2 LTE/LTE-A技術及相關存取技術介紹 8
3.3 Fuzzy Logic Controller 20
3.4 Geographic Information System 22
第四章、 協同傳輸與模糊控制之換手機制 23
4.1 協同傳輸訊號的計算 24
4.2 換手機制結合模糊理論 24
4.3 實驗模擬 30
4.3.1 場景描述 30
4.3.2 模擬結果 32
4.3.3 效能評估 33
4.3.4 實驗結論 39
第五章、 結合GIS移動樣式推估之換手機制 40
5.1 移動樣式估計 41
5.2.1 使用者回傳地理資訊方式 42
5.2.2 使用者回傳的資訊 46
5.2.3 資料庫欄位 46
5.2.4 地理資訊的處理 47
5.2.5 將CQI與地理資訊做結合 47
5.2.6 換手機制 48
5.2.7 預測演算法 48
5.2 實驗模擬 52
5.2.1 場景描述 52
5.2.2 實驗結果 54
5.2.3 實驗結論 55
第六章、 結論 57
參考文獻 59

圖目錄
圖 1. LTE網路架構圖 7
圖 2. FRAME架構圖 8
圖 3. RESOURCE BLOCK架構圖 9
圖 4. TDD/FDD示意圖 10
圖 5. OFDM與FDM比較圖 10
圖 6. 載波聚合示意圖 11
圖 7. MIMO CHANNEL MODEL 12
圖 8. 空間複用 12
圖 9. 空間多樣性 13
圖 10. 波束І 13
圖 11. 波束Π 14
圖 12. COMP之CB/CS、JP示意圖 15
圖 13. FFR示意圖 16
圖 14. 換手場景圖 17
圖 15. 換手流程圖 19
圖 16. FUZZY SYSTEM架構圖 20
圖 17. FUZZY LOGIC PARAMETER 21
圖 18. 地理資訊系統示意圖 22
圖 19. INPUT MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION 26
圖 20. OUTPUT MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION 27
圖 21. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER 27
圖 22. FUZZY RULES 28
圖 23. 結合模糊理論的換手流程圖 29
圖 24. 實驗場景(І) 31
圖 25. 實驗場景(Π) 31
圖 26. 場景(І)結果比較圖 32
圖 27. 場景(Π)結果比較圖 32
圖 28. 效能評估場景圖 34
圖 29. HANDOVER CORRECTNESS RATE(USER:180) 35
圖 30. HANDOVER CORRECTNESS RATE(USER:150) 35
圖 31. HANDOVER FAILURE RATE(USER:180) 36
圖 32. HANDOVER FAILURE RATE(USER:150) 36
圖 33. CALL DROP RATE(USER:180) 37
圖 34. CALL DROP RATE(USER:150) 37
圖 35. SINR(USER:180) 38
圖 36. SINR(USER:150) 38
圖 37. 使用者移動模式示意圖 41
圖 38. LTE-A結合地理資訊架構圖 42
圖 39. 第一階段使用者以及基地台流程圖 43
圖 40. CQI標記示意圖 44
圖 41. CQI等高線圖 45
圖 42. 第二階段使用者及基地台流程圖 46
圖 43. 使用者移動模式判斷流程圖 48
圖 44. 預測演算法-CQI比對 50
圖 45. 預測演算法-換手決策 51
圖 46. 實驗場景圖 53
圖 47. 結果比較圖(І) 54
圖 48. 結果比較圖(Π) 54
圖 49. 結果比較圖(Ⅲ) 55



表目錄
表 1. 4G規格需求表 6
表 2. 實驗參數 30
表 5. 實驗參數 52

參考文獻
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[28]3GPP TS 36.211 V10.4.0, “Physical channels and modulation”, Jan 2012.
[29]3GPP TS 36.212 V10.5.0, “Multiplexing and channel coding”, Mar 2012.
[30]3GPP TS 36.213 V10.5.0, ” Physical layer procedures”, Mar 2012.
[31]3GPP TS 36.300 V10.7.0, “Overall description; Stage 2”, Mar 2012.
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