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研究生:余政諺
研究生(外文):Yu, Chengyen
論文名稱:大學生英文寫作錯誤分析與對策-以台灣英文寫作課程為例
論文名稱(外文):University Students’ Writing Error Analysis and Corresponding Strategies: A Case Study of an EFL Composition Class in Taiwan
指導教授:陳月妙陳月妙引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Yuehmiao
口試委員:沈添鉦王啟琳
口試委員(外文):Shen, Tianzheng Wang, Qilin 
口試日期:2012-06-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:外國語文研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:對比分析錯誤分析中介語英語寫作
外文關鍵詞:Contrastive AnalysisError AnalysisInterlanguageEFL Writing
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本研究旨在分析大學生英語寫作之文法錯誤分析,透過錯誤分析找出學生在英語寫作上可能會遇到的困難和瓶頸;此外,並探究其文法錯誤原因,並了解學習者在寫作歷程中所採用的策略。
参與本研究的受試者為24位大三英文系學生,資料來源是一整個學期72份的作文以及問卷調查。資料分析採用Corder (1981)錯誤分析的步驟:收集語料、鑑定錯誤、分類錯誤、計算錯誤類型、以及找出錯誤原因。本研究結果發現頻率最高的錯誤類型依序為動詞、名詞、冠詞、介係詞,其中動詞佔最高的比例。相對而言,低頻率的錯誤包含形容詞,副詞,和倒裝句。錯誤原因主要從語內干擾和語際干擾兩個層面討論。意即依據Selinker(1972) 所提的中介語理論: ⑴目標語語法規則之過分應用,⑵語法規則之簡化,⑶母語語法之轉移。錯誤歸因主要源自於母語的負面影響,而較少錯誤歸因於階段性的錯誤。本研究結果顯示,大部分的錯誤受到學生母語的影響。
基於此結果,研究者提出,在第二語寫作中,應讓學生了解母語和外語的同異,如此才能化母語為正向力量而非干擾因素。此外,經由學習者常犯的錯誤,可使得英語教師明白學生問題所在,以便設計適合的教學法來處理語誤,同時學生也可受益於寫作回饋,進而增進外語寫作能力。最後,結論提供教師教學與學生學習的建議與對策。
關鍵字: 對比分析、錯誤分析、中介語

The thesis aims to analyze students’ grammatical error types found in EFL compositions, via error analysis, as a method to identify students’ possible difficulties in the area of English writing. Moreover, this study also investigates the possible underlying factors causing their grammatical errors in order to understand the writing strategies employed by the EFL students. Participants consisted of twenty-four English majors enrolled in a junior-level EFL writing class in Taiwan. Sources of data were collected by gathering students’ sample writings throughout a semester. Data analysis procedures were adopted from Corder’s (1981) error analysis framework including (1) selecting written corpora, (2) identifying errors, (3) classifying errors into categories, (4) counting frequency of each type, and (5) interpreting the causes for the errors committed. Results reveal that the hierarchy of error frequency is verbs, nouns, articles, and prepositions, in which verbs exert the highest rate of errors. Comparatively, lower error ratios are found in adjectives, adverbs, and inversion. The sources of errors are mainly discussed from two linguistic perspectives: interlingual errors and intralingual errors. Specifically, three criteria from Selinker’s (1972) interlanguage hypothesis were utilized: overgeneralization of the target language, simplification, and transfer from the native language. Results indicate that L1 transfer appears to be one of the most prominent factors in committing writing errors. Based on the findings, it is of great importance for learners to understand the similarities and differences between their native language and target language. Ideally this understanding will lead to L1 having facilitating effects rather than interfering influences on second language writing. This study concludes that language teachers can better comprehend the problems and obstacles found in students’ writing through analysis of high frequency errors so that appropriate teaching approaches to dealing with those common errors can be offered and students will be able to maximally benefit from corrective feedback, thus gradually increase writing proficiency.
Key Words: Contrastive Analysis, Error Analysis, Interlanguage, EFL Writing

CONTENTS
CHINESE ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................ii
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………….....v
CONTENTS ...............................................................................................................vii
LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................xi
LIST OF FIGURES ..................................................................................................xii
Chapter One Introduction ..................................................................................1
1.1 Background and Motivation of the Study ...............................................................1
1.2 Statement of the Problem.........................................................................................5
1.3 Purpose of the Study ...............................................................................................5
1.4 Research Questions .................................................................................................6
1.5 Definition of the Terms ...........................................................................................7
1.6 Significance of the Study ........................................................................................7
1.7 Organization of the Thesis .......................................................................................8
Chapter Two Literature Review .....................................................................10
2.1 Error vs. Mistake…………………………………………………………………10
2.2 Contrastive Analysis…………………………………………………………….. 11
2.2.1 Markedness Theory………………………………………………………...12
2.2.2 Hierarchy of Difficulty(HD)……………………………………………….13
2.3 Error Analysis…………………………………………………………………….16
2.3.1 Error Classification………………………………………………………...17
2.3.2 Sources of Errors…………………………………………………………...18
2.4 Performance Analysis…………………………………………………………….23
2.5 Interlanguage……………………………………………………………………..23
2.5.1 Studies of Errors in Chinese-English Interlanguage……………………….25
2.6. Syntactic and Structural Differences between Chinese and English…………….27
2.6.1 Tense vs. Aspect……………………………………………………………27
2.6.2 Word Order………………………………………………………………...28
2.6.3 Topic vs. Subject…………………………………………………………...29
2.6.4 Hypotaxis vs. Parataxis…………………………………………………….30
2.6.5 Relative Clauses……………………………………………………………31
2.6.6 Contrastive Rhetoric………………………………………………………..31
2.7 Evidence of Resorting to L1 in L2 Writing………………………………………34
2.8 Views on Errors and Error Correction in L2Writing…………………………….36
2.9 Written Errors Made by Taiwanese Learners…………………………………….38
Chapter Three Methodology ............................................................................46
3.1 Research Milieu…………………………………………………………………..46
3.2 Participants……………………………………………………………………….46
3.3 Data Collection and Instrument…………………………………………………..47
3.4 Research Procedure………………………………………………………………48
3.4.1 Compositions Collection…………………………………………………...50
3.4.2 Error Checking……………………………………………………………..50
3.4.3 Error Classification………………………………………………………...50
3.4.4 Error Counting……………………………………………………………..51
3.4.5 Error Explanation…………………………………………………………..51
3.5 Data Analysis……………………………………………………………………..52
3.6 Summary…………………………………………………………………………54
Chapter Four Results and Discussion............................................................55
4.1 Distributions of Errors……………………………………………………………56
4.2 Discussion of Grammatical Errors……………………………………………….58
4.2.1 Errors in the use of verbs…………………………………………………...58
4.2.1.1 Tense and Aspect Errors…………………………………………….58
4.2.1.2 Infinitive…………………………………………………………….60
4.2.1.3 Gerunds……………………………………………………………..61
4.2.1.4 S-V Agreement……………………………………………………..62
4.2.1.5 Double Verbs……………………………………………………….63
4.2.1.6 No Verb……………………………………………………………..64
4.1.2.7 Auxiliary…………………………………………………………….64
4.1.2.8 Voice…………………………………………………. ……………65
4.2.2 Errors in the Use of Nouns…………………………………………………67
4.2.3 Errors in the Use of Pronouns……………………………………………...68
4.2.4 Errors in the Use of Articles……………………………………………….69
4.2.5 Errors in the Use of Prepositions…………………………………………..70
4.2.6 Errors in the Use of Adjectives…………………………………………….71
4.2.7 Errors in the Use of Adverbs……………………………………………….73
4.2.8 Errors in the Use of Conjunctions………………………………………….74
4.2.9 Errors in the Use of Sentence Fragments…………………………………..75
4.2.10 Errors in the Use of Run-on Sentences…………………………………...76
4.2.11 Errors in the Use of Misplacement………………………………………..77
4.2.12 Errors in the Use of Relative Clauses……………………………………..78
4.2.13 Errors in the Use of Subjects, Objects, Complements……………………82
4.2.14 Errors in the Use of Inversion…………………………………………….84
4.3 Results and Discussion of the Questionnaire…………………………………….86
4.3.1 Students’ Perspectives on Errors and Error Correction……………………86
4.3.2 Students’ Writing Process Survey………………………………………….88
4.3.3 Examination on Causes of Errors…………………………………………..91
4.3.4 Problems and Solutions to the Writing Errors……………………………...93
4.4 Summary…………………………………………………………………………94
Chapter Five Conclusion ...................................................................................99
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings…………………………………………………99
5.2 Pedagogical Implications……………………………………………………….100
5.3 Applications for Teachers……………………………………………………….102
5.4 Applications for Students……………………………………………………….107
5.5 Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Further Research …………...108
References……………………………………………………………………….....110
Appendices………………………………………………………………………....123
Appendix 1………………………………………………………………………….123
Appendix 2………………………………………………………………………….124
Appendix 3………………………………………………………………………….127
Appendix 4………………………………………………………………………….131














LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 The summary of the syntactic performance of Chinese and English……...32
Table 2.2 Related Studies on Error Analysis in Taiwan……………………………...44
Table 3.1 Error Categories and Subcategories Checklist…………………………….53
Table 3.2 The Summary of Research Methods………………………………………54
Table 4.1 The Distribution of Each Error Type………………………………………56
Table 4.2 The Differences between English and Chinese in Relative Clauses………80
Table 4.3 A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Relative Clauses………….80
Table 4.4 The Categorization of Error Types Produced by Chinese Students……….81
Table 4.5 The summary of the Error Types and its Possible Causes in this Study…...85
Table 4.6 Students’ Perspectives on Errors and Error Correction……………………86
Table 4.7 Students’ Writing Process Investigation…………………………………...88
Table 4.8 Examination on Causes of Errors………………………………………….91
Table 4.9 The Rank of the Grammatical Errors……………………………………...94
Table 5.1 Options for focus-on-form………………………………………………..104
Table 5.2 Correction Chart………………………………………………………….106










LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 The Summary of Error Causes……………………………………………22
Figure 4.1 The Distribution of Each Error Type……………………………………..57
Figure 5.1 Some pedagogical options for focus on form…………………………...104

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