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研究生:翁福德
研究生(外文):Wong, Fu-te
論文名稱:刺激呈現時間與正向情緒對於雙歷程之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effects of The Duration of Stimuli Presentation andPositive Emotion on Dual-process
指導教授:姜自強姜自強引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiang, Tzu-ching
口試委員:廖敏如李金鈴
口試委員(外文):Liao, Min-juLi, Jing-ling
口試日期:2012-07-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:臨床心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:雙歷程情緒相似性判斷作業
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精神分析理論對人類的思考預設兩種類型的心智組織,分別為「初級歷程」與「次級歷程」。「初級歷程」的特性是比較屬於潛意識層面的、比較早發展出來、聯結性的思考模式; 而「次級歷程」的特性則比較屬於意識層面的、發展比較晚成熟的、屬於深思熟慮的思考模式。透過受試者在相似性判斷作業上的行為表現可以來推論這兩種不同的歷程。當「初級歷程」的思考歷程主宰時,判斷作業的表現會以「特徵相似」作為相似性判斷作業依據; 當「次級歷程」的思考歷程主宰時,判斷作業的表現會以「關係相似」作為相似性判斷作業依據。
本研究沿用相似性判斷作業作為「雙歷程」思考的行為指標。結果發現當「主要刺激」與選擇刺激呈現在同一個畫面時,受試者是以「關係相似」作為判斷的依據(實驗一)。如果「主要刺激」單獨呈現3 秒鐘時,「關係相似」與「特徵相似」均可作為受試者判斷的依據(實驗二)。如果將「主要刺激」單獨呈現80毫秒時,受試者主要是以「特徵相似」作為判斷依據(實驗三)。此外,本研究也發現在呈現「主要刺激」之前,先讓受試者接受一正向情緒誘發影片,則受試者採用「關係相似」的次數將減少,並減弱實驗一的效果(實驗四)。然而,在呈現「主要刺激」之前操弄受試者的認知狀態,要求受試者思考一些照片間的相似性,相似性判斷作業的結果與實驗一相同,受試者會以「關係相似」作為判斷的基礎(實驗五)。
此系列的結果說明了「雙歷程」背後的兩歷程之間可以透過操弄外在刺激的呈現時間或先前線索的不同,可能透過情緒或努力思考的作用來影響受試者的判斷標準。這也意味著「雙歷程」並非一成不變,是具有認知穿透的性質(cognitivepenetrability)。
There are two roughly distinctive modes of processing about the nature of human thoughts in psychoanalytic theory. Primary process is characterized as being unconscious, developmentally early, and associative, and Secondary process is characterized as being conscious, developmentally late, and deliberative. The
dual-process can be distinguished with the inferences from behaviors in the similarity judgment task, in which subjects choose one of two “choice figures” to match the “master figure”. Subjects’ choice of feature attribution in the similarity judgment task is representative of processing in Primary process. In contrast, subjects’ choice of relational similarity in the similarity judgment task is representative of processing in Secondary process.
We discovered that subjects normally responded toward relational similarity when both the “master figure” and “choice figures” were presented at the same time (exp1). When the “master figure” was presented for 3 seconds followed by two “choice figures”, subjects responded in between relational similarity and feature similarity (exp2). When the presentation duration of“master figure” was only 80 ms followed by “choice figures”, subjects responded mainly to the feature similarity of “master figure” (exp3). Besides, the effect of experiment 1 would be lessened when a valence film was shown to subjects before the whole stimuli (exp4). The effects of experiment 2 made by stimuli would be reversed by top-down manipulation (exp5).
This series of study illustrated that the processing of the dual-process was not independent but rather interchangeable through the variant duration of external stimuli (like duration of stimuli presentation) and the change of the intrinsic cognitive state (emotion or deliberative thinking). It clearly shows the flexibility of the dual-process and provides the basis of further study in the interaction between the 2 processes.
摘要 I
Abstract II
緒論 1
實驗一 11
研究方法 11
結果與討論 15
實驗二 17
研究方法 17
結果與討論 19
實驗三 23
研究方法 23
結果與討論 24
實驗四 28
研究方法 28
結果與討論 30
實驗五 33
研究方法 33
結果與討論 35
綜合討論 39
參考文獻 43
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