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研究生:梁文龍
研究生(外文):Wen-long Liang
論文名稱:空品區內空氣污染天氣類型氣象因子條件分析之研究-以臺灣西部地區為例
論文名稱(外文):A study and Analysis of Meteorological Parameters of Air Pollution Weather type within Air Quality Area-A Case Study of Taiwan Western Area
指導教授:楊宏宇 教授
指導教授(外文):Horng-yu Yang
口試委員:劉崇治教授洪志評教授
口試委員(外文):Chung-chih LiuChih-ping Hung
口試日期:2012-06-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中華科技大學
系所名稱:土木防災工程研究所在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:空氣污染指標(PSI)天氣類型劣化日氣象因子
外文關鍵詞:pollutant standard index(PSI)weather typeEpisode Daysmeteorological factors
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台灣西部地區位處中央山脈西側平原居多,人口密度及交通流量,均較其他地區(花、東地區)為高,使得空氣污染問題日益嚴重。氣象因子的變化會影響局部地區的空氣品質,而局部地區的氣象條件主要受天氣類型之影響。因此,為瞭解空品區內空氣品質劣化發生時,空氣污染天氣類型的氣象因子條件之差異性,本研究擬針對95至99年間(2006-2010年),行政院環保署所屬北、中、南三個空品區的空氣品質測站的空氣污染指標值(PSI)及天氣類型分類進行探討,以期能找出空氣污染天氣類型的氣象因子條件及範圍。空氣品質劣化日(Episode days of air quality)定義係指篩選一般空氣品質測站的空氣污染指標值(PSI),當有三個(含)以上的監測站空氣污染指標值(PSI)大於100時,即為劣化日(Episode days)。統計結果得知,2006-2010年之間北部有80日,中部有67日,南部有236日,合計共383日。針對上述劣化日逐日對照其所屬天氣類型,彙整後顯示,共有19種天氣類型出現空氣品質劣化的情形。北部主要以太平洋高壓西伸型(A12)佔28.75%、熱帶低壓系統外圍環流型(A4)佔13.75%、高壓迴流型(A11)佔12.5%、偏南氣流型(A21)佔11.25%為主,中部以高壓迴流型(A11)佔31.34%、微弱東北季風型(A7)佔13.43%、太平洋高壓西伸型(A12)佔11.94%、熱帶低壓系統外圍環流型(A4)佔10.45%為主,南部則以高壓迴流型(A11)佔25.85%、微弱東北季風型(A7)佔16.95%、標準東北季風型(A6)佔15.25% 所發生的劣化日居多。北、中、南部空品區,出現空氣品質劣化日時共同主要的天氣類型為高壓迴流型(A11)佔24.02%;而太平洋高壓西伸型(A12)佔13.05%、熱帶低壓系統外圍環流型(A4)佔8.09%為北部及中部空品區同時出現空氣品質劣化的主要天氣類型。

本文使用中央氣象局位於北中南部之地面氣象觀測站,找出劣化日發生時相對應之各空品區氣象因子的觀測數據,加以整理統計分析各氣象因子在不同空品區內的差異性,並依北、中、南不同空品區分析及綜整其氣象參數範圍以及氣象因子之最小值與最大值,以說明在不同區域內發生空氣品質劣化時氣象因子的範圍,俾供後續相關研究參數設定依據及參考研究結果顯示夏半年劣化日以北部空品區為主,主要受地形及地貌之影響(盆地效應及山谷風環流等),而中、南部夏半年因海陸風環流盛行,較少劣化日發生。反之,冬半年以中、南部為主,主要受大陸冷高壓之影響 (東北季風)天氣穩定,常伴隨有輻射逆溫產生。而北部空品區因位於東北季風迎風面,每當鋒面過境常伴隨有綿密之冬雨造成濕沉降現象,因而較少劣化日之發生。其次,北、中、南部地區發生空氣品質劣化時顯示,冬半年期間 (12月至翌年5月)及夏半年期間 (6月至11月) 氣象因子條件及範圍會隨污染天氣類型不同而不同。而受地形、地貌及次環流等(盆地效應、山谷風環流及海陸風環流等)之影響,北、中、南部空品區的氣象因子條件及範圍,仍具差異性。

冬半年大陸地區沙塵暴經常於3-4月間,隨著東北季風環流對臺灣地區造成偶發性的空氣品質劣化日。針對西部地區而言,沙塵暴造成空氣品質劣化日以標準東北季風型(A6)佔25.93%、強烈東北季風型(A5)佔22.22% 發生次數居多,其發生季節(3-4月)的氣象因子條件、範圍與前述平常易於發生劣化日之條件與範圍相較結果,沙塵暴發生時因季節性關係造成各個氣象因子如氣壓、氣溫、最高氣溫、最低氣溫相較前者之範圍顯示其觀測值皆相對較低;冬半年因乾冷空氣及天氣穩定的特性形成相對濕度及降雨量偏低,而雲系以高雲族為主;然風速因東北季風盛行而較強勁;風向大多以北北西~北北東風為主。藉由上述研究結果期能提供相關單位使用氣象因子做為模擬的參數時參考及依據。

Western Taiwan, located on the west side of Central Mountain Ranges, is mostly a Plain with high population density and traffic flow, as opposed to other areas (i.e. Hualien or Taitung). Consequently, its problem in air pollution is worsening by the day. Variation in meteorological factors may affect its local air quality. And, meteorological conditions in local areas are mostly influenced by synoptic weather types. Thus, this study attempts to understand the differences between conditions of meteorological factors in the event of deteriorating air quality and its air pollution’s weather types. Analysis is performed on the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) and weather types at air quality observation stations set up by the Environmental Protection Administration(EPA)in North, Central, and South Taiwan from 2006 to 2010. It is hoped that the condition and range of meteorological factors are found from air pollution’s weather types.The definition of “Episode Days of Air Quality” is the filtered PSI values from its observation station. When the PSI value is greater than 00 at three or more observation stations for the day, it is an Episode Day. Statistical results showed a total of 383 Episode Days during 2006-2010, in which North = 80 Days, Central = 67 Days, and South = 236 Days. From those 383 Episode Days, a total of 19 different weather types were identified from the days of poor air quality. West stretch of the Pacific High Pressure (A12) is the main weather type during days of poor air quality in the North region, at 28.75%. Outflow Circulation of the Tropic Low Pressure System (A4) is the weather type at 13.7%. Outflow rebound of the High Pressure (A11) is the weather type at 12.5%. Tendency of south Monsoon (A21) is the weather type at 11.25%. In the Central region, Outflow rebound of the High Pressure (A11) is the weather type at 31.34%. Weak NE Monsoon (A7) is the weather type at 13.43%. West stretch of the Pacific High Pressure (A12) is the weather type at 11.94%. Outflow Circulation of the Tropic Low Pressure System (A4) is the weather type at 10.45%. In the South region, Outflow rebound of the High Pressure (A11) is the weather type at 25.85%. Weak NE Monsoon (A7) is the weather type at 16.95%. Standard NE Monsoon (A6) is the weather type at 15.25%. In all regions (North, Central, and South) overall, Outflow rebound of the High Pressure (A11) is the main weather type during days of poor air quality, at 24.02%. West stretch of the Pacific High Pressure (A12) and Outflow Circulation of the Tropic Low Pressure System (A4) are the primary weather types during Episode Days in North and Central regions in which A12 is the weather type at 13.05% and A4 is the weather type at 8.09%.

Observed data for meteorological factors in Episode Days were found from ground stations of Central Weather Bureau in North, Central, and South Taiwan. Differences between various meteorological factors were analyzed for each region from the observed data. For each region (North, Central, and South), the range of meteorological parameters, maximum and minimum values of each meteorological factor were analyzed as well. The information is to be used as a reference for the future to interpret ranges of meteorological factors during Episode Days.The results showed that Episode Days during summer semi-year mostly occurred in the North region due to its topography and landform (i.e. basin effect, mountain-valley wind circulation). On the other hand, because of the frequent sea-land breeze circulation during summer semi-year in the Central and South regions, there are less Episode Days. Conversely, due to the influence of continental high-pressure system (northeast seasonal-wind) during winter semi-year in the Central and South regions, the weather is stable, along with radiation inversion. Moreover, confronted by the northeast seasonal-wind and the phenomenon of moist-deposition from the by-passing winter rains, there are less Episode Days in the North region during winter semi-year. Next, it was noted that during Episode Days in the North, Central, and South region, conditions and ranges of meteorological factors varied with differences of air-pollution weather types for winter semi-year (December – May) and summer semi-year (June – November). Due to the influence of topography, landform, and sub-circulation (i.e. basin effect, mountain-valley wind circulation, and sea-land breeze circulation), differences still exist in conditions and ranges of meteorological factors for North, Central, and South regions.

Sandstorms of mainland China accompanied by circulations of the northeast seasonal-wind into Taiwan cause occasional Episode Days during March and April annually. Standard NE Monsoon (A6) and Strong NE Monsoon (A5) occur most often during Episode Days in western regions of Taiwan, in which A6 is the weather type at 25.93% and A5 is the weather type at 22.22%. Comparing conditions and ranges of meteorological factors between seasons (March/April sandstorm season versus non-sandstorm season) during Episode Days, the ranges of mean atmospheric pressure, mean temperature, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature were lower in sandstorm season than other seasons (non-sandstorm).Because of cold dry air and stable weather during winter semi-year, lower relative humidity and lower precipitation level is the winter characteristic. Cloud system dominated by High Clouds. Strong wind is aided by the northeast seasonal wind. Wind direction is mostly north-northwest and north northeast. It is hoped that relevant departments may use the above information as a reference for future simulations and bases.

目錄

摘要 .............................................. I
Abstract...........................................III
目錄 .............................................. V
表目錄 ..............................................VII
圖目錄 ..............................................IX

第一章 緒論 ....................................... 1
第一節 研究動機 .................................... 1
第二節 研究目的 .................................... 1
第三節 研究流程 .................................... 2
第二章 文獻回顧 .................................... 3
第一節 北中南空品區地形環境與氣候特................... 3
第二節 空氣品質與綜觀天氣型態之相關性 ..................5
第三節 空氣品質與局部環流之相關性 ................... 11
第四節 空氣品質與氣象因子之相關性 ................... 13
第三章 研究方法 ................................... 22
第一節 監測資料蒐集與彙整 ........................... 22
第二節 空氣品質劣化日之篩選 ......................... 26
第三節 綜觀天氣型態分類 ............................ 28
第四章 分析與討論 .................................. 37
第一節 空氣品質劣化日統計結果分析 .................... 37
第二節 空氣品質劣化日天氣類型相關性分析 ................ 43
第三節 空氣品質劣化日不同空品區氣象因子條件分析 ....... 50
第四節 偶發不良日-沙塵暴 ............................ 91
第五章 結論與建議 .................................. 104
第一節 結論 ....................................... 104
第二節 建議 ....................................... 106

參考文獻
附錄A 各類天氣型態之天氣圖
附錄B 2006至2010年北中南空品區空氣品質劣化日篩選結果(PSI>100)
附錄C 2006至2010年逐日天氣型態分類表
附錄D 2006至2010年北中南空品區空氣品質劣化日所屬天氣型態一覽表

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1. 49.呂世宗、陳福來、繆在澄,1989,高雄地區空氣污染受海陸風之影響,科學發展月刊,7(7),P741-752
2. 53.李清勝,1992,影響大台北地區懸浮微粒濃度變化之氣象分析,大氣科學,20(4),P341-360
3. 57.林和、柯文雄、吳昭仁,1989,複雜地形三度空間風場模…鹽寮地區海陸風之研究,大氣科學,17(2),P121-141
4. 59.林沛練、張隆男、陳景森,1990,海風邊界層之發展與污染物濃度的日變化,大氣科學,18(4),P287-307
5. 65.柳中明、蘇維中,1997,區域氣象環境與高臭氧之相關分析,大氣科學,25(1),P27-49
6. 76.張仲德、林登秋、薛美莉,2001,1994-2000年彰化市空氣品質特性之探討,地理學報,30,P89-100
7. 84.黃怡嘉、程萬里,2001,中部空品區高臭氧日氣象條件之解析,中華民國環境保護學會會誌,24(1),P26-50
8. 87.程萬里、黃超群、郭冠廷,2001,中部地區海陸風環流與高臭氧污染之相關分析,東海科學第三卷,P57-80
9. 90.楊之遠,2001,大陸沙塵暴影響台灣地區空氣品質之監測與預報,物理雙月刊
10. 91.楊之遠、柳中明,1996,台灣臭氧光化污染嚴重個案分析,中華民國環境保護學會會誌,19(2),P30-59
11. 93.雷孟岳、李清勝,1992,防範於未然-淺談空氣品質潛勢預報,科學月刊,23,P437-442
12. 100.蔡清彥,1987,台灣北部地區局部環流之研究,大氣科學,15(2),P179-198