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研究生:吳丞峰
研究生(外文):Wu, ChengFeng
論文名稱:建立適用於我國機場之飛機引擎空污費徵收機制
論文名稱(外文):Development Of Aircraft Engine Emission Charge Mechanisms For Taiwanese Airports
指導教授:盧曉櫻盧曉櫻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cherie Lu
口試委員:黃泰林劉嘉俊
口試委員(外文):Terry HuangJacob Liu
口試日期:2012-06-02
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長榮大學
系所名稱:航運管理學系碩士班
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:57
中文關鍵詞:社會成本飛機引擎空污費歐洲機場
外文關鍵詞:Social costaircraft engine emissions chargesEuropean airports
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過去半個世紀以來,全世界工商業等各領域快速發展,給人們生活帶來便利與品質。然而;在人們享受高度發展的同時,氣候與環境的異常變化,讓我們開始思考與面對環境變化的種種原因,並設法在經濟發展與環境保護上找到平衡,達到與環境共融之永續發展的目的。環境議題的研究在全世界已行之有年,以本文所研究的航空運輸領域而言,歐洲主要先進國家在航空運輸與環境保護上則已投入數年的研究與環境保護措施。機場與飛機營運所帶來之主要環境影響不外乎噪音與空氣污染問題,而我國機場已進行飛機噪音防制費徵收多年,但針對飛航污染物並未有類似之作法。因此,本研究將以歐洲等主要機場的空污費徵收機制為依據,並考量各主要排放物所產生的社會成本,探討適宜我國機場之飛機引擎空污費徵收機制。結果顯示,雖然引擎CO2排放量高於NOX,然而因NOX對自然環境與人體健康等影響程度較大,其單位社會成本較高,因此NOX總社會成本遠高於CO2。實例驗證結果顯示,以松山-羽田航線而言,NOX之社會成本約為每起降架次233至323歐元之間,換算為每個座位約為41至54元台幣之間;若以此為基礎徵收空污費,且航空公司將此成本轉嫁於客運票價中,則每位旅客負擔成本將約為票價之0.35%至0.46%。我國投入徵收空污費用機制,每位旅客需多負擔之最高占總票價約0.4%的空污費用,以A330-300較其他機型高;因此,未來航空公司可透過使用不同機型營運或採取燃油效率較高且污染物排放少之航空器或發動機,亦可透過替代燃油之使用,以減少空污費徵收所增加之成本,並達到污染物減量之目的。

Each industry has been blooming rapidly in the past fifty years. Thus, majority of the people have better life and greater living quality. However, while enjoying the convenience of economic development, the environmental impacts have generated along with most of the activities. In order to ensure the sustainability of the aviation industry, there is a need to find a balance between economic development and environmental damages. Of all the development related to environmental protection, Europe seems to play a vital role in the field, especially in terms of the applications of economic measures in the aviation environmental impacts generated from commercial flights. As opposed to noise charges, which have been applied at airports in Taiwan for more than a decade, no equivalent attention has been put in emissions generated from aircraft operations. The research aims at developing the aircraft engine emissions charge mechanisms for Taiwanese airports, after reviewing those charge mechanisms applied at European airports and taking into account the social costs of different aircraft emissions. The results show that the amount of CO2 emissions from aircraft operations is larger than that of NOX. However, NOX has greater impact on the natural environment and human health and results in higher social cost than CO2. Applying the Songshan-Haneda route for the empirical analysis, the social cost of NOX is estimated to be between €233 and €323 per landing and take-off. Assuming the aircraft engine emissions charges is based on this level and airlines have transferred all this extra costs to passengers, the increased cost would be around 0.35-0.46% of air fares. Furthermore, if the aircraft engine emission charges were implemented at Taiwanese airports, each passenger would then have to pay extra 0.4% of air fares as emission fees, with the A330-300 having the highest cost. Hence, airlines could avoid the emission surcharges by operating aircraft with more fuel efficiency engines or even using the alternative fuel in the long run.
摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 III
圖目錄 V
表目錄 VI
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究目的 2
1.3研究範圍與對象 2
1.4研究流程與步驟 3
1.5研究內容 5
第二章 國際民航環境機制現況探討 6
2.1航空器引擎之排放污染物 6
2.1.1污染物排放 6
2.2全球主要組織於航空運輸污染減量作法 10
2.2.1國際民航組織(ICAO) 10
2.2.2歐盟執委會(EC) 13
2.2.3美國聯邦航空署(FAA) 14
2.2.4亞洲太平洋經濟合作會議(APEC) 15
2.2.5碳交易制度(ETS) 16
2.2.6 EU ETS納入航空運輸產業之內容 18
2.3飛機引擎空污費 19
2.3.1瑞典- Stockholm-Arlanda Airport 19
2.3.2瑞士- Zurich Airport 20
2.3.3德國- Frankfurt Airport、Munich Airport 21
2.4.4英國- Heathrow Airport、Gatwick Airport、Luton Airport 22
2.3.5丹麥- Copenhagen Airport 23
2.4空污費收取比較 24
第三章 環境費機制建立與模式構建 26
3.1環境影響之範疇 26
3.2空污收費機制 27
3.3外部成本內生化 28
3.4劑量反應分析法(Dose-Response Method) 29
3.5污染物之社會成本 31
3.6模式構建 34
3.6.1污染物排放計算 34
3.6.2巡航階段 34
3.6.3LTO-cycle 34
第四章 實例驗證分析 36
4.1 臺北松山國際機場背景說明 36
4.2 空污費徵收情境分析 37
4.3 空污費對旅客與航空公司之影響 40
4.3.1敏感度分析 42
4.4 空污費使用建議 43
第五章 結論與建議 44
5.1結論 44
5.2建議 45
參考文獻 46
中文文獻 46
英文文獻 47
附錄 歐洲民航會議建議之飛機NOX排放物分類機制 49

中文文獻
1.中華民國交通部民用航空局,“民國一百年統計資料”。
2.尹相隆、黃運貴、揚智凱、蔡棻霓,「我國航空部門能源消耗與CO2排放分析」,碳經濟,第十六期,民國九十九年,頁2-17。
3.行政院環境保護署,環境白皮書,民國九十九年。
4.呂怡慧、盧曉櫻,以市場措施改善航空氣污染物對環境之影響,長榮大學航運管理研究所碩士論文,民國一百年。
5.林鈺棋、盧曉櫻,「引擎空污費對亞洲航空公司的成本影響」,2007海空運論文研討會,臺南,民國九十六年。
6.沈恆立,臺北市空氣品質改善效益之經濟評估-特徵價格法之應用,中國文化大學經濟研究所,民國九十五年。
7.周義華,運輸工程,華泰文化,民國九十七年。
8.馮正民、賈凱傑、方志文、葉文健,航空運輸管理,滄海書局,民國九十八年。
9.邱翰暘、盧曉櫻,新式航空器營運對機場環境成本之影響-噪音與引擎廢氣,長榮大學航運管理研究所碩士論文,民國一百年。
10.莊律涵、盧曉櫻,航空器與機場營運空氣污染物減量措施分析,長榮大學航運管理研究所碩士論文,民國九十七年。
11.廖仲仁,「以特徵價格法估算飛機噪音成本之研究-以臺北松山機場為例」,運輸計劃季刊,第28卷第一期,民國八十八年,頁145-166。
12.劉思吟、盧曉櫻,機場發展對地方經濟效益與環境成本之影響-以臺灣桃園機場為例,長榮大學航運管理研究所碩士論文,民國九十七年。
13.盧曉櫻、熊正一,「航空噪音防制費收費公式之檢討」,交通部民用航空局委託研究計畫報告書,民國九十六年。
14.盧曉櫻、熊正一、余泰毅,「國際航空廢氣(含溫室氣體)排放減量現況調查及我國因應策略之研究」,交通部民用航空局委託研究計畫報告書,民國九十九年。
15.陳柏伶、林鈺棋,盧曉櫻,「環境徵收對航空旅客需求之影響」,第四屆十校聯盟航運物流學術研討會,高雄,民國九十五年。

英文文獻
1.AETF, Second Meeting of the APEC Transportation Working Group Aviation Emissions Task Force, Singapore, 15-16 Sep, 2009.
2.Albers, S., Bühne, J.-A., Peter, H., “Emission trading-strategy implications for airlines,” Association for European Transportation and contributors, 2007.
3.Anger, A., “Including aviation in the European emissions trading scheme: Impacts on the industry, CO2 emissions and macroeconomic activity in EU, ” Journal of Air Transportation Management, Vol.16 2010, pp.100-105.
4.Aslam, M.A., ”International Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading and Issues Related to Voluntary Participation by Developing Countries”, United Nations Foundation, Project A006 TAD GLO 98 025, 2001, pp.121-144.
5.Belobaba, P., Odoni, A. and Barnhart C., The Global Airline Industry (1st ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009.
6.CE-Delft, Solution for environmental, economy and Technology, “Lower NOX at Higher Altitudes Policies to Reduce the Climate Impact of Aviation NOX Emission,” 2008.
7.EEA, The Emission Inventory, European Environment Agency, 2004.
8.EPA, “EPA Green Book.”, US Environmental Protection Agency, 2006.
9.FAA, ”VALE program’’, Office of Airports Airport Planning and Programming, US Federal Aviation Administration, 2004.
10.Gallagher, K.P., and Taylor, B., “International trade and air pollution: the economic costs of air emissions from waterborne commerce vessels in the United States,” G-DAE Working Paper No. 03-08, 2003.
11.ICAO, “ICAO Environmental Report for Aviation and Climate Change,” The Environmental Branch of the International Civil Aviation Organization, 2010.
12.Lu, C., “Development of airport environmental charge mechanisms for Taiwan” presented at Inter-noise conference, Osaka, Japan, September 2011.
13.Lu C., and Morrell P., “Determination and application of environmental costs at different sized airports—aircraft noise and engine emissions,” Transportation, Vol.33, 2006, No.1, pp.45-61.
14.Morrell P., Lu C., “The environmental cost implication of hub–hub versus hub by-pass flight networks,” Transportation Research Part D, Vol.12(3), 2007, pp.143–157.
15.Scheelhaase, J.-D, “Local emission charges-A new economic instrument at German airports,” Journal of Air Transportation Management, Vol.16, 2010, pp.94-99.
16.Scheelhaase, J.-D, and Grimme, W.-G., “Emission trading for international aviation-an estimation of the economic impact on selected European airlines,” Journal of Air Transportation Management, Vol.13,2007, pp.253-263.
17.Scheelhaase, J.-D, Grimme, W, and Schaefer, M., “The impact of the European commission’s proposal on the integration of air transport into the emissions trading scheme on competition between European and non-European airlines,” Association for European Transport and contributors, 2007.
18.Schipper, Y., “Environmental costs in European aviation,” Transport Policy, Vol.11, 2004, pp.141-154.
19.Wark, K., Warner, C.F., and Davis, W.T., Air pollution: its origin and control, Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1998.
20.Yuill, T., and Miller, M., “Dose-response relationship,” Encyclopedia of Earth Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland, 2008.

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