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研究生:江振茂
論文名稱:警察領導風格對組織效能影響之研究-以新北市政府警察局為例
指導教授:章光明章光明引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:中央警察大學
系所名稱:警察政策研究所
學門:軍警國防安全學門
學類:警政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:318
中文關鍵詞:領導風格組織效能警察領導成果
外文關鍵詞:leadership styleorganization effectivenesspoliceleadership outcome
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:41
  • 點閱點閱:2351
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:586
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:9
本論文旨在探討新北市政府警察局分局長與分駐(派出)所所長領導風格、領導成果與組織效能之影響,藉由對新北市政府警察局警察分局長與分駐(派出)所所長領導風格之實證探討,以發掘並建構可以解釋領導風格、領導成果與組織效能的模式。
文中首先闡明本研究之背景、問題與重要性,確定本文之研究方向,再進行文獻探討,確立本研究之概念性架構。從研究架構中,可明確掌握本文研究變項間之關係,並據以建立研究假設。透過研究變項操作性定義之界定及衡量,進行問卷設計及信度與效度之檢定,確保本研究資料蒐集之客觀正確。為使研究結論可適用其他警察機關及實務單位,本文以分層比例隨機方式抽樣,並力求達到客觀、信度、效度及實用等標準,實證分析結果的正確性與代表性足可信賴。
在分析方法上,本文利用Cronbach’α係數進行量表內部一致性檢定;以百分比、平均數及變異數分析(ANOVA)描述各變項之特性及比例分配;以變異數分析及皮爾森積差相關分析來檢定研究各變項間假設;以因素分析(Factor Analysis)萃取研究變項之共同因素;以最小顯著差異法(Least Significance Difference;簡稱LSD法)變異數同質性考驗進行多重比較之事後檢定;以t檢定(t - test)及迴歸分析(Regression Analysis)來探討領導風格、領導成果等之組合對組織效能之影響;以集群分析法(Cluster Analysis)發掘分局長與所長之領導風格類別;以結構方程式(Structure Equation Models, SEM)進行考驗分析,來驗證理論模式,並建立測量指標與潛在變項間之關係,及考驗潛在變項間之因果路徑關係,以考驗結構模式之適配性。
經過實證檢定後,本文發現:
1.不同年齡、教育程度、配階與職務,對分局長及所長領導風格的認知有顯著差異。
2.在四個領導風格類型中,依平均數由高至低依序為:轉換型(Transformational Leadership)、交易型(Transactional Leadership)、權威型(Autocratic Leadership)、被動/逃避型(Passive/ Avoidant Leadership)。
3.在領導風格10個構面中,以轉換型之「理想化影響行為」構面及交易型之「後效酬賞」最受肯定,而以放任/逃避型之二構面最不被認同。
4.轉換型領導為新北市警察分局長與所長的主流領導風格。
5.分局長的「轉換型」及「交易型」領導風格比所長更受到所屬的認同。
6.分局長與所長之領導類型集群分布均可區分為「轉換/交易」型暨混合型(轉換/交易/權威型)以及所長的權威型。
7.本研究在領導風格各構面之分布,與美國Bass &; Avolio(2005)之研究呈現差異的特質。
8.分局在組織認同、工作滿足及工作士氣之平均值都較分駐(派出)所高,而工作壓力較低,顯見派出所工作壓力大於分局。
9.員警年齡、服務年資、配階與職務的不同,會影響對領導成果(中介變項)的認知。
10.治安狀況較重之派出所,在組織認同、工作士氣、工作滿足最高,工作壓力較低。
11.權威型領導對工作壓力模式最具影響力,轉換型領導有助於減少壓力。
12.轉換型領導對組織認同、工作滿足、及工作士氣模式均最具影響力。
13.可透過採行轉換型領導,提高員警工作滿足、工作士氣及組織認同,以及減低工作壓力為提高服務品質最有效之策略作為。
14.可透過採行轉換型領導,提升員警之組織認同、工作滿足與工作士氣,減低工作壓力等途徑,來提高組織之團隊績效。
15.可透過採行轉換型領導,提升員警工作滿足、工作士氣來提高組織的市民滿意度。
16.組織效能因領導風格的不同而有所差異,並以「轉換/交易」型表現最佳。
17.提升警察人員的教育訓練和程度,以及隨著其層級和職務提高,對領導成果和組織效能越有正向影響
18.分局治安狀況對於組織效能具有顯著負向影響力
19.被動/逃避與權威型透過降低轉換型、交易型領導,進而降低領導成果與組織效能
20.轉換型與交易型領導對於領導成果和組織效能具正向之直接效果,亦可透過提升領導成果而提高組織效能
本研究提出以下建議:
一、警察領導實務上的建議
1.採用轉換型領導做為警察領導的最高範式,建立警政領導幹部轉換型領導的魅力,塑造優質領導風格
2.採行以轉換型領導為主流風格,並因應情勢而權變領導
3.適度調整分駐(派出)所之組織規模與巡佐配置,以利經驗傳承及增進領導效能
4.促請警政決策當局重視並制度化培植警政領導幹部
5.強化基特班與特考班之組織認同,提升整體員警之素質
6.強化教育與實務單位領導理論相關課程與訓練,以厚植領導能力與學養
二、後續研究的建議
1.在研究範圍上,擴大至六都或全省,以提高研究的外在效度
2.在研究對象上,可增加領導者自評及他評,以更增研究的價值
3.在研究變項上,未來的研究可考慮更多影響警察組織效能的變項
4.在研究方法上,兼採質性與量化的研究途徑,以詮釋深層的內涵
This paper is to explore the influences of the leadership style adopted by chiefs of police precincts and stations in New Taipei City, along with leadership outcome,(intervening variables)and organization effectiveness. With the empirical study on the leadership style adopted by chiefs of police precincts and stations in New Taipei City, the model to explain leadership style, outcome and organization effectiveness may be established.

The background, question and importance of this research are laid out to ascertain the research direction, followed by literature review to establish the conceptual structure. The relation between variables is identified in the research structure and the hypothesis is formulated accordingly. To ensure the objectiveness of the research, operational definition of variables is given and evaluated to design questionnaire and assess the reliability and validity. Proportionate stratified random sampling is adopted for police officers while purposive sampling is for the public in an effort to achieve the standard of objectiveness, reliability, validity and effectiveness and the conclusion may be applicable for other police organization and units.

Internal consistency is measured by Cronbach’ α coefficient. Percentage, mean value and analysis of variance(ANOVA)are used to present the characteristics and percentage distribution of each variable. ANOVA and Pearson’s moment correlation coefficient analysis are used to assess the hypothesis between variables. Factor analysis is made to find common factor of variables. LSD test for homogeneity of variance is applied for post hoc analysis of multiple comparisons. T-test and regression analysis explore the effect of leadership style and outcome on organization efficiency. Leadership styles of precinct and police station chiefs are categorized with cluster analysis. Structural Equation Model(SEM)is used to test and analyze theory and estimate the relation between indicators and latent variables. Causal path relationship between latent variables is tested for structural modeling fit.

The research has following findings:
Age, level of education, rank and job content contribute to significant differences in respondent’s recognition of leadership styles adopted by chiefs of police precincts and stations. According to mean value, the four leadership styles are: transformational leadership, transactional leadership, autocratic leadership and passive/avoidant leadership. Among the ten components of leadership styles, the idealized influence behavior from transformational leadership and contingent reward from transaction leadership are most praised, while the two components of passive/avoidant leadership are the least. Transformational leadership is the mainstream style adopted by chiefs of police precincts and stations in New Taipei City. More respondents are identified with transformational and transactional leaderships exhibited by precinct chiefs than those by police station chiefs. Both transformational/transactional leadership and transformational/transactional /autocratic leadership can be found in the cluster distribution of precinct and police station chiefs, while autocratic leadership is also exhibited by police station chiefs. Distribution of each components found by this research is different from those found by Bass and Avolio(2005).
The mean values of organization identification, job satisfaction, and morale of precinct staff are higher than those of police station staff, while the pressure is lower. Age, working experience, level of education, rank and job content of respondents have effects on recognition of leadership outcome. Police stations with heavy duty enjoy highest organization identification, morale and job satisfaction and lowest pressure. Autocratic leadership has greatest impact on pressure model while transformational leadership is helpful in reducing pressure. Transformational leadership is most influential to organization identification, job satisfaction and morale.
To enhance officers’ recognition, satisfaction, and morale and reduce pressure, transformational leadership is the most effective strategy to increase service quality. Transformational leadership may be adopted to enhance an officer’s recognition, satisfaction, and morale, and reduce pressure and thus increase team performance. Transformational leadership may be adopted to enhance job satisfaction and morale, and thus the public’s satisfaction with the organization. Different leadership styles lead to different organization effectiveness. Among them, transformational/ transactional leadership has best result.
Training and level of education of police officers have positive effects on leadership outcome and organization effectiveness and these effects increase with the promotion of officers. The social order of a precinct has obvious negative effects on organization effectiveness. Autocratic leadership and passive/avoidant leadership undermine transformational and transaction leaderships and further decrease leadership outcome and organization effectiveness. Transformational and transaction leaderships have positive and direct effects on leadership outcome and organization effectiveness. Organization effectiveness can also be strengthened by increasing leadership outcome.
This research has the following suggestions.
A. For police leadership in practice
Transformational leadership should be the model adopted by police chiefs and charismatic transformational leadership should be cultivated to shape quality leadership style. Transformational leadership should be the mainstream style and switch to contingency leadership depending on situations. Scale of police stations and allocation of sergeants and squad leaders should be adjusted to facilitate experience sharing and improve leadership effectiveness. Policing authorities are advised to prioritize institutionalization of developing police leaders. Organization identification of non-police-college/university graduates should be strengthened and the overall quality of officers can be improved. Leadership theory and training courses should be designed to cultivate leadership ability and knowledge.
B. For future study
The scale of research may expand to the six major cities or even every city in Taiwan to increase external validity. In regard to research subjects, self-rating and others-rating of leaders may be added to increase the value of research. In regard to variables, more variables that affect organization effectiveness may be added. In regard to research method, qualitative and quantitative methods might be adopted at the same time to discover deeper implication.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與問題 1
第二節 研究動機、重要性及目的 5
第三節 研究範圍與流程 7
第四節 研究方法與限制 13
第五節 重要概念的界定 16
第六節 本文結構概要 17
第二章 警察領導風格與組織效能之文獻探討19
第一節 領導之定義與理論發展 19
第二節 領導風格之意涵及其類型評析 26
第三節 領導成果之面向及其理論與相關研究探討 39
第四節 組織效能之探討與評估準據 53
第五節 警察領導風格與新北市政府警察局個案分析73
第三章 研究設計與實施過程 85
第一節 研究架構與假設 85
第二節 研究工具與信效度分析 90
第三節 研究對象與抽樣方法 106
第四節 資料分析方法 113
第四章 警察領導風格、領導成果與組織效能的分布及其相關因素分析 117
第一節 警察領導風格的分布及其相關因素分析 117
第二節 警察領導成果的分布及其相關因素分析 129
第三節 警察組織效能的分布及其相關因素分析 140
第四節 本章小結 147
第五章 警察領導風格對組織效能之影響分析 161
第一節 警察人員對領導風格與組織效能關聯性的認知情形分析 161
第二節 警察組織效能影響因素之迴歸分析 164
第三節 警察組織效能影響因素之模型分析 169
第四節 焦點團體資料分析 - 176 -
第五節 本章小結 - 185 -
第六章 結論與建議 - 189 -
第一節 研究發現 - 189 -
第二節 結論 - 208 -
第三節 建議 - 215 -
參考文獻 - 223 -
附錄1直轄市(含準用)政府警察局所屬分局繁雜程度等級劃分表 - 237 -
附錄2新北市政府警察局各分局分駐(派出)所警力配置概況表 - 239 -
附錄3 新北市政府警察局各分局問卷抽樣分配管制表 - 242 -
附錄4「警察領導風格與組織效能」問卷 - 244 -
附錄5 Mind Garden出版社取得使用版權及證明 - 251 -
附錄6不同環境因素下領導風格認知概況表 -260 -
附錄7焦點團體訪談會議紀錄 - 263 -
附錄8本研究焦點訪談內容摘要表 -289 -
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