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研究生:謝宜儒
研究生(外文):Yi-Ru Hsieh
論文名稱:認知性晤談對於證人指認之影響:事件相關腦電位研究
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Cognitive Interview on Eyewitness Identification: An ERP Study
指導教授:鄭谷苑鄭谷苑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Angela Ku-Yuan Tzeng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:證人指認證人證詞ERP認知性晤談
外文關鍵詞:ERPcognitive intervieweyewitness testimonyeyewitnessidentification
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本研究主要目的為討論認知性晤談(cognitive interview, CI)在證人證詞與證人指認的影響,以結構式晤談(structure interview, SI)做為控制組,並討論修正後的認知性晤談(modified cognitive interview, MCI)除了在證詞質和量上不遜於認知性晤談外,是否因為沒有語言遮蔽效果(verbal overshadowing effect, VOE)而在指認正確率上,更優於認知性晤談。此外,本研究以行為研究與ERPs實驗,選擇P300及FN400兩個腦波成份做為分析,試圖為證人指認建立良好的生理指標。受試者為三十名大學生,分別探討證人證詞的品質、證人指認之正確率及腦波的結果,刺激材料為五分鐘左右的無暴力犯罪影片,受試者在影片結束後隨機分成三組,分別為結構式晤談、認知性晤談與修正後認知性晤談,接著被要求在四張照片中指認出影片中的犯人。結果發現,認知性晤談在證詞的質與量上皆顯著優於結構式晤談,在訊息量上,修正後認知性晤談僅略低於結構式晤談,確實不失為一個良好的偵查工具;三種不同的晤談方法在指認正確率上並無顯著差異存在,但以趨勢上而言,認知性晤談因為語言遮蔽效果的產生,而使得指認正確率低於另外兩種晤談方式,而修正後的認知性晤談在正確率上雖低於結構式晤談,但高於認知性晤談;P300的分析上有顯著且一致的發現,P300的確可以正確區分出嫌犯與陪襯者,是為良好的生理指標;另外,在FN400對於嫌犯與陪襯者的反應無顯著的差異存在。最後也針對可能的限制和未來的研究方向加以討論。


In present study we investigated the effect of cognitive interview (CI) on eyewitness testimony and identification. Structure interview (SI) was used as a control condition. If identification accuracy in modified cognitive interview (MCI) did not reduce by verbal overshadowing effect (VOE), MCI may have higher accuracy than CI. We examined the P300 and FN400 difference on suspect and filler conditions, to establish a reliable physiological indicator. Subjects were tested in two sessions. Upon arrival at the first session subjects individually viewed 5 minutes non-violent crime video. The second session subjects were random assigned to one of three interview conditions. Subjects were then asked to identify the culprit in crime and the ERPs data were recorded. Results revealed that MCI was more effective than SI and more identification accuracy than CI in general. P300 can correctly distinguish from target stimulus/suspect and non-target stimulus/filler. However, FN400 cannot differentiate from these two kinds of stimulus. Both of P300 and FN400 did not influence by interview types. Limitations of this study and future research directions are discussed.
目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻探討 6
第一節 證人證詞的基本現象 6
1.1 個人特徵(individual characteristics) 6
1.2 共同證人(co-witness) 7
1.3 信心程度(confident level) 9
1.4 知覺歷程類型(perceptual processing style) 10
第二節 認知性晤談在證人證詞上的表現 11
第三節 語言遮蔽效果(VERBAL OVERSHADOWING EFFECT, VOE) 15
第四節 事件相關電位(EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS) 18
4.1 P300 19
4.2 早期中額葉新舊效果 /頂葉新舊效果 20
第三章 研究方法與結果 23
3.1 研究假設 23
3.2 實驗設計 24
3.3 受試者 24
3.4 實驗材料 24
3.5 實驗程序 25
3.6 ERP分析 27
3.7.1 證詞品質結果 28
3.7.2 證人指認結果 30
3.7.3 ERP結果 32
第四章 綜合討論與研究限制 41
第一節 綜合討論 41
第二節 研究限制與未來發展 43
參考文獻 46
附錄 50

表目錄
表一 目擊證人指認因素表 7
表二 晤談法內容流程之比較 16
表三 受試者回憶訊息量描述性統計 28
表四 不同晤談法下嫌犯指認人次 30
表五 嫌犯指認正確率卡方檢定 31
表六 本研究與CURRAN & CLEARY (2003)結果比較表 42


圖目錄
圖一 字詞辨識作業 10
圖二 P300在嫌犯與陪襯者之間的差異 20
圖三 實驗程序示意圖 27
圖四 三種訊息類型證詞品質結果 29
圖五 不同晤談法下嫌犯指認正確率百分比 31
圖六 案件相關人、物指認之受試者對目標刺激與非目標刺激的P300振幅差異 33
圖七 犯人指認之受試者對嫌犯與陪襯者的P300振幅差異 35
圖八 案件相關人、物指認之受試者對目標刺激與非目標刺激的FN400振幅差異 37
圖九 犯人指認之受試者對嫌犯與陪襯者的FN400振幅差異 39
圖十 不同年齡與指認方式之指認正確率結果 44


附錄
附錄一 指認題目 50
第一部影片的指認題目 50
第二部影片的指認題目 52
第三部影片的指認題目 54
後備影片的指認題目 56
附錄二 最高法院【99台上1702】號判決要旨 58
附錄三 我國嫌犯照片指認格式 59
附錄四 MCI組受試者之草圖 60
MCI組第二十二號受試者之草圖 60
MCI組第二十五號受試者之草圖 61
MCI組第二十八號受試者之草圖 62


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