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研究生:林珮玉
研究生(外文):Nicole Lin
論文名稱:影響離職傾向之關鍵因素-以C通訊公司之研發人員為例
論文名稱(外文):Assessing Key Factors for Affecting Turnover Intention - A Case Study of R&;D Staff in C Network Communcation Corporation
指導教授:胡宜中胡宜中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Chung Hu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:中原大學
系所名稱:企業管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2014
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:離職傾向、網路通訊產業、研發人員、德爾菲法、決策實驗室分析法、網路程序分析法
外文關鍵詞:DEMATEL-based Analytic Network Process (DANP)R&;D staffDelphi methodnetwork communication industryTurnover intention
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根據資策會MIC(2012)表示,2013年台灣通訊產業整體產值將達到約新台幣2.32兆(約779億美元),年成長率為14.2%,換言之,即便全球景氣在混沌的氛圍下,台灣的通訊產業仍然有一波的成長契機,據此,各網路通訊大廠皆積極投入研發行列以搶奪市場先機,在網路通訊產業裡,研究發展的能力是創造公司競爭優勢最重要的來源,而研發人員則是公司重要的人力資產,也是公司創新與研發能力的關鍵,同理可證,研發人員乃為公司最核心之成員,因此,研發人員之離職將對公司的競爭優勢與經營績效造成很大的影響,因此,若能掌握影響研發人員離職傾向的因素,則可預先擬定留住人才的管理對策,穩固組織的經營績效及市場競爭力。
本研究係以新竹地區一家成立15年以上之上市通訊公司為研究對象,主要產品為路由器及網路電話交換機,產品核心價值在網通市場中以多樣化功能以及高穩定度著名,並以自有品牌行銷的策略把台灣LOGO賣到全世界,目前在五大洲擁有高達七十多個不同國家的合作夥伴亦與英國BT、 斯洛伐克T-Com等知名電信局皆有合作關係,在英國更是最多中小企業採用的網通品牌,2012年甚榮獲經濟部評選為台灣中堅企業,由於對品牌的重視,個案公司研發團隊成員佔全公司總人數高達40%以上,這群掌握公司產品關鍵技術的研發人員乃為公司最核心之成員,亦是公司最重要的資源。
過去有關離職的相關研究中,大部分僅是以某些要素來探討離職傾向,例如以工作滿意度、工作壓力、激勵制度等要素進行探討,但就實況而言,員工的離職因素產生的層面很廣,尚有許多其他的因素,例如工作適應、員工關係、組織因素、薪資報酬、另有他就等;而在研究方法方面則大都以迴歸統計分析法來探討,但迴歸分析多以因素間的加法型式呈現,不易展現準則間相互影響的關係。由於決策實驗室分析法與網路程序分析法,強調準則間或多或少存在著相依關係,在應用上也是找出關鍵因素的有效工具,因此本研究採用決策實驗室分析法與網路程序分析法(Dematel-Based Analytic Network Process, DANP),來釐清變數間相互影響的關係,找出影響研發人員離職傾向的關鍵因素。
本研究發現影響離職傾向的關鍵因素包含領導風格、薪資報酬、升遷機會等因素。領導風格是其中最重要的因素,這是因為好的領導風格可以使組織氛圍良好、員工士氣高昂且樂於相互合作,進而使組織有計畫、有效率地達成目標,在高績效的團隊氛圍下,員工的離職率自然較低。就關鍵因素的因果關係而言,本研究發現從領導風格著手改善將可有效率的改善其他關鍵因素的績效,其他部份因果關係簡述如下:
一、領導風格影響升遷機會
在願意花費心思體恤部屬之管理者的領導下,員工追求升遷機會及工作表現的意願會較顯著;在比較重視組織結構之管理者的領導下,員工追求升遷機會及工作表現的意願會較顯著,同理可證,使表現績優,且在職涯規畫上具有企圖心的研發人員於升遷機會上獲得滿足,組織方能留住優秀的研發人才,確保組織競爭力。
二、領導風格影響工作自主
民主式的領導方式,員工較易有工作自主權,主管較有時間投注於產品及任務上;過去雖有許多科技產業研發主管效仿此方式,但隨著組織的成長,單純依賴此方式已無法進一步有效提升管理績效。主管在領導上若能善用每位部屬之所長,不僅提高了主管的領導能力,亦同時提高部屬的執行能力,進一步的提高了整體經營績效,組織穩健永續方能流住優秀的人才。
三、領導風格影響個人因素
Daniel Goleman等學者認為管理者應適時扮演關懷者的角色,平時即努力建立和諧的團隊氛圍、增強團隊士氣、促進員工之間的交流機會,以及建立與員工之間的信任關係等。若主管能與員工保持良好互動,必然會強化研發人員對於組織的向心力,不僅可提升員工對於工作投入的程度,更可降低其離職意願,進而提升組織的整體效能。
本研究提供個案公司及相關產業掌握影響研發人員離職傾向的關鍵因素,並據此提出留才之相關對策,在離職預防與管理制度上亦提出用人與留人的策略。


Indicated from statistics of MIC (2012), the output value throughout Taiwan's communication industry (hereinafter referred to as “the Industry”) will reach about NT $ 2.32 trillion (77.9 billion US dollars approximately) with the annual growth rate of 14.2%, in other words, even under global chaotic economy, the Industry remains uprising a trend of growth opportunities, hence, each network communication manufacturer is involved in research and development (R&;D) for preliminary market opportunities. Ability in R&;D is a critical source to create competitive advantage in network communication industry, while R &; D staffs become assets with significance, also the key to a company's innovation and R &; D capabilities, likewise, R &; D staffs are the core in the company; therefore, their resignations will cause massive influence on the competitive advantages and business performance in view of this, supposed that factors to R &; D staff’s turnover intention are seized well, which will drive development of strategies for maintenance of talents, stabilization of operational performance and competitiveness in the market.
This study was based on a listed communication company which has been in Hsinchu area for more than 15 years as the case subject, where it produces routers and VoIP switches mainly. It is featured with its multipurpose and high reliability as the core value of product in the network communication market; besides, with strategies schemed for branding on their won, it has have massive sales of Taiwan LOGO worldwide, which has more than seventy partners globally in Five Continents, also has cooperative relationship with UK BT, Slovakia T-Com and other famous telecommunication bureaus. It is even the most common network communication brand which is widely used by small to medium enterprises in the UK. In 2012, it was even selected as the backbone enterprise by the Ministry of Economic Affairs. With its emphasis on the brand, the case company has more than 40% of R &; D team members of all; this team masters the product line made by key technology become the core, also a critical series of resource in the company.
Among literatures as to resignation historically, most of them were discussions based on some factors to turnover intention including but not limited to job satisfaction, work pressure and incentive system; however, practically, there shall be a wide range of aspects forming employee turnover where other factors might coexist behind, such as job adaption, employee’s impersonal relationship, factors as to organization, remuneration &; salary, better recruitment from other companies and so forth; and for research methods, the most were regression analysis methods, but, such method would be expressed in adder form among factors, which has difficulty to exhibit relation variables influence mutually. As a result that DEMATEL-based Analytic Network Process (DANP) emphasizes more or less independence among guidelines and it is also an effective tools to figure out key factors; hence, it was used in this study to clarify relation variables influence mutually and identify key factors to R&;D staff’s turnover intention.
Indicated from the findings herein, the key factors to a staff’s turnover intention shall include but not limited to leadership, remuneration &; salary and promotion opportunities. Among of them, leadership constitutes the most critical role as good leadership leads to good atmosphere filled in the workplace, improved morality and happy to work as a team, further systemizing the organization for effective achievement of targets. The more brilliant performance, the lower a staff’s turnover intention shall be. For causality of such key factors, the findings suggest that improvement of leadership drives that of performance behind other key factors effectively. Here comes other portion of causality as follows:
1. Leadership affects promotion opportunity
Under a manager with his leadership built on will to considerate subordinates, staff has more obvious will to seek for getting promoted and brilliant performance, so is a leadership of a manager with more concern of organizational structure; likewise, it also satisfies ambitious R&;D staff by such promotion throughout his career life and target of maintaining R&;D elites shall be achieved to assure competitiveness within the organization.
2. Leadership affects Work Independence
Democratic leadership leads to more obvious trend of independence during works performed by a staff and manager would have more time spent on the product line and tasks; although a number of managers in R&;D department of technology industries imitated so historically, with growth and expansion, this way fails to improve performance in the management effectively further. Supposed that managers utilizes specialty of every subordinate in his job, not only it improves manger’s leadership, but also it facilitates subordinate’s executing capabilities, further overall operational performance; only robust organization retains elite.
3. Leadership affects personal factor
Scholars, Daniel Goleman et al. suggested that managers shall play a role which cares for others appropriately; these managers shall brew teamwork manner in harmony diligently, intensifying morality and urging more opportunities of exchange among staffs, as well as mutual trust and so forth. Managers’ maintenance of harmonious interaction with staffs will definitely centralize cohesion R&;D staff to the organization, which not only improves degrees staff spends in the job, but also reduces his intention to resign, further enhancing overall organizational performance.
This study suggests case company and related industries to master key factors to R&;D staff’s turnover intention, also hereby suggests strategies as to elite maintenance; for preventive measures on resignation and management, this study also suggested strategies positioning staffs and maintaining staffs.


目錄
摘要…………………………………………………………………………………………I
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………III
致謝辭………………………………………………………………………………………V
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………………VI
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………………VIII
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………………IX
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………………………1
第一節、研究背景與動機…………………………………………………………………1
第二節、研究目的…………………………………………………………………………4
第三節、研究範圍與對象…………………………………………………………………5
第四節、研究流程…………………………………………………………………………5
第二章 文獻探討…………………………………………………………………………6
第一節、研發人員的功能及任務…………………………………………………………6
第二節、離職傾向…………………………………………………………………………7
第三節、離職傾向之衡量準則……………………………………………………………11
第四節、準則定義說明……………………………………………………………………12
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………………………………………14
第一節、建立研究架構雛型………………………………………………………………14
第二節、德爾菲法問卷調查………………………………………………………………15
第三節、建立正式架構……………………………………………………………………17
第四節、網路程序分析法…………………………………………………………………22
第五節、決策實驗室分析法為基礎的網路程序分析法…………………………………24
第四章 研究結果與分析…………………………………………………………………28
第一節、問卷設計…………………………………………………………………………28
第二節、問卷分析…………………………………………………………………………29
第五章 結論與建議………………………………………………………………………36
第一節、研究結論…………………………………………………………………………36
第二節、對實務之貢獻……………………………………………………………………38
第三節、研究限制…………………………………………………………………………39
第四節、後續研究建議……………………………………………………………………40
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………………41
一、中文參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………41
二、英文參考文獻…………………………………………………………………………42
三、參考網站………………………………………………………………………………44
附錄一:雛型架構增減訪談問卷…………………………………………………………45
附錄二:準則重要度訪談問卷……………………………………………………………47
附錄三:準則重要度訪談問卷(第二次)…………………………………………………49
附錄四:準則重要度訪談問卷(第三次)…………………………………………………51
附錄五:影響離職傾向之關鍵因素多準則評估DEMATEL問卷………………………… 53

表 目 錄
表1-1 相關文獻表…………………………………………………………………………4
表2-1 離職傾向相關定義…………………………………………………………………7
表2-2 相關文獻……………………………………………………………………………8
表2-3 離職傾向衡量準則…………………………………………………………………11
表3-1 專家人員學歷統計表………………………………………………………………16
表3-2 專家人員年資統計表………………………………………………………………16
表3-3 專家人員職務統計表………………………………………………………………16
表3-4 專家人員專長統計表………………………………………………………………16
表3-5 雛型架構增減說明…………………………………………………………………17
表3-6 第一次準則重要度評分表…………………………………………………………18
表3-7 第二次準則重要度評分表…………………………………………………………19
表3-8 第三次準則重要度評分表…………………………………………………………20
表3-9 簡化矩陣表…………………………………………………………………………26
表3-10 行列運算表…………………………………………………………………………26
表3-11 加權超級矩陣………………………………………………………………………27
表3-12 極限矩陣表…………………………………………………………………………27
表4-1 評分尺度說明………………………………………………………………………28
表4-2 準則代碼表..………………………………………………………………………28
表4-3 直接關係矩陣………………………………………………………………………29
表4-4 正規化直接關係矩陣………………………………………………………………30
表4-5 總影響關係矩陣……………………………………………………………………30
表4-6 簡化矩陣表…………………………………………………………………………31
表4-7 重要度與原因度分析表……………………………………………………………31
表4-8 加權超級矩陣………………………………………………………………………32
表4-9 極限矩陣表…………………………………………………………………………33
表4-10 準則權重表…………………………………………………………………………34

圖 目 錄
圖1-1 2012~2013台灣通訊產業整體產值成長圖…………………………………………1
圖1-2 台灣通訊產業分類 …………………………………………………………………2
圖1-3 研究流程圖 …………………………………………………………………………5
圖3-1 研究雛型架構………………………………………………………………………14
圖3-2 研究架構……………………………………………………………………………21
圖3-3 AHP層級架構 ………………………………………………………………………22
圖3-4 ANP網路架構 ………………………………………………………………………22
圖3-5 雛型架構增減說明…………………………………………………………………26
圖3-6 正式研究架構………………………………………………………………………30
圖4-1 因果座標圖…………………………………………………………………………31
圖4-2 D-R因果圖 …………………………………………………………………………32
圖4-3 權重比較表…………………………………………………………………………33
圖4-4 評選研發人員離職傾向之績效指標………………………………………………35
圖5-1 簡化因果圖…………………………………………………………………………36

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三、參考網站
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