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 運算轉阻放大器(Operational Trans-Resistance Amplifier；OTRA)，其關係式為 ，特性與運算轉導放大器(Operational Trans-Conductance Amplifier；OTA)對偶，OTA為廣泛使用之元件，因此OTRA在電路設計有著先天上的優勢。 許多以OTRA為主動元件之電路設計，假設Rm值趨近無限大，然而Rm並非無限大，所以造成較大之誤差。而本文假設Rm為有限值，當操作頻率遠大於主極點時，可得轉移等效電容 。此方法Rm較接近實際情形並以等效轉移電容取代實際電容，達成無電容之振盪器。 本文使用導納矩陣分析設計法，完成矩陣後，將矩陣分解成三個方程式，再以基本架構組成完整電路，基本架構為OTRA的正負輸入端和輸入電壓間連接電阻，且有以下三種特性，1.每個方程式需包含一個由OTRA實現的轉移等效電容2.方程式中除轉移電容為正的一項外，將其他各項移往方程式的另一邊，正項表示信號從OTRA的正端輸入3.方程式中除轉移電容為正的一項外，將其他各項移往方程式的另一邊，負項表示信號從OTRA的負端輸入， 完成後的電路為三階振盪器，由三顆OTRA以及五顆電阻所組成。模擬使用HSPICE 軟體，及TSMC035μm 製程參數進行模擬。電路模擬結果與原先設計接近。最後，調降OTRA的偏壓Vbias，及變動OTRA中的電晶體長度L，來控制振盪器之振幅。
 Operational Trans-Resistance Amplifier(OTRA) can be described by the equation . OTRA is dual to Operational Trans-Conductance Amplifier (OTA) which is extensively used in analog circuit design . For this reason , OTRA has great potential in the future. In the past, designer used to let the (transresistance gain) of OTRA approach to infinity ,but in real circuit it's not accurate , is finite. Actually,OTRA can be approximated as a transfer capacitor. By this method, it's not need any capacitors in circuit. According to admittance matrix analytical synthesis method, we completed matrix and decomposed it into three equations. Each equation can be achieved by basic circuit structure and has four features:1. Each equation must include a transfer equivalent capacitance of OTRA.2.Items are in another side of equation except the positive equivalent capacitance of OTRA .Positive items mean input signals from OTRA‘s positive side.3.Negative items mean input signals from OTRA‘s negative side. This thesis proposed a third-order oscillator using OTRAs and resistors without capacitors. The circuit simulated with TSMC035μm process by HSPICE. The simulation result is closed to our design. Finally, we controlled the amplitude of oscillator by changing length(L) of MOS and V¬bias of OTRA.
 目錄摘要 IAbstract II誌謝 III目錄 IV圖目錄 V表目錄 VII第一章 緒論 1第二章 主動元件介紹 42-1 主動元件簡介 52-1-1 電流傳輸器(Current conveyor) 52-1-2 第二代電流傳輸器(Second-generation Current Conveyor；CCII) 62-1-3 第三代電流傳輸器(Third-generation Current Conveyor；CCIII) 92-1-4 運算轉導放大器(Operational Trans-Conductance Amplifier；OTA) 112-2運算轉阻放大器(Operational Trans-Resistance Amplifier；OTRA) 132-3結論 18第三章 以OTRA 為主動元件發表之電路 193-1 以OTRA為主動元件發表之濾波電路 193-2以OTRA為主動元件發表之振盪器 243-3 結論 25第四章 以OTRA 為主動元件設計三階振盪器 264-1 振盪器簡介 264-2電路設計 274-3電路模擬結果 394-4 振幅調整 474-5 近似與非近似分析 584-6 結論 62第五章 總結及未來研究方向 635-1 總結 635-2未來研究方向 66參考文獻 67圖目錄圖 2- 1電流傳輸器(Current conveyor) 5圖 2- 2以第一階電路實現的基本current conveyor 5圖 2- 3 CCII+之方塊圖 7圖 2- 4 CCII+之內部電路 8圖 2- 5 CCII-之方塊圖 8圖 2- 6 CCII+之內部電路 8圖 2- 7 以CCII+來實現CCIII 9圖 2- 8 以COMS實現CCIII 10圖 2- 9 以COMS實現CCIII之改良 10圖 2- 10 OTA之方塊圖 11圖 2- 11 Cascode OTA 12圖 2- 12 OTRA方塊圖 13圖 2- 13 OTRA之實現 13圖 2- 14 OTRA之內部電路(1999年提出) 14圖 2- 15 OTRA之內部電路(2006年提出) 15圖 3- 1 Yuh-Shyan Hwang等學者提出MOSFET-C濾波電路 19圖 3- 2 MOSFET resistor circuit (MRC)，及其方塊圖 19圖 3- 3 Cem Cakir等學者提出之一階、二階全通濾波電路 20圖 3- 4 Ugur Cam等學者所提出之一階全通濾波電路 21圖 3- 5 Selquk Kiling等學者提出之一階全通濾波電路 22圖 3- 6 由J.-J. Chen,H.-W等學者所提出電流式萬用二階濾波電路 23圖 3- 7 Chun-Li Hou等學者所提出之OTRA構成的震盪器 24圖 4- 1迴路分析法示意(1) 27圖 4- 2 迴路分析法示意(2) 28圖 4- 3節點分析法示意(1) 29圖 4- 4節點分析法示意(2) 29圖 4- 5 本文使用之基本架構 35圖 4- 6 以OTRA實現(式4-2-24) 37圖 4- 7以OTRA實現(式4-2-25) 37圖 4- 8 以OTRA實現(式4-2-26) 38圖 4- 9 本文之振盪器 38圖 4- 10 Vbias=-0.75 R= 1050kΩ 之信號 41圖 4- 11 隨頻率之變化 42圖 4- 12 隨頻率之變化 42圖 4- 13 隨頻率之變化 43圖 4- 14 OTRA輸出端信號比較 44圖 4- 15 電路之頻譜 46圖 4- 16 L×1.1時 的信號 48圖 4- 17 L×1.1之頻譜 48圖 4- 18 L×1.2時 的信號 50圖 4- 19 L×1.2之頻譜 50圖 4- 20 L×1.3時 的信號 52圖 4- 21 L×1.3之頻譜 52圖 4- 22 L×1.4時 的信號 54圖 4- 23 L×1.4之頻譜 54圖 4- 24 對振幅的變化 56圖 4- 25 振幅對THD的變化 56圖 4- 26 對THD的變化 57圖 4- 27 振盪電路 58表目錄表 2- 1 Current Conveyors於主動網路合成之應用 7表 2- 2 OTRA內部MOS長寬比 16表 2- 3 OTRA與OTA 比較 17表 3- 1二階萬用濾波電路輸入與輸出關係 23表 4- 1 轉移等效電容值 43表 4- 2 調整後振盪電路之特性 44表 4- 3 相角差 45表 4- 4 L調整後數值比較 55表 4- 5 理想與非理想之比較 62
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 1 以一階全通濾波器及積分器而不使用電容器所設計之二階振盪電路 2 以二階帶通濾波轉移函數而不使用電容器所設計之二階振盪電路 3 以OTRA及電阻器而不使用電容器所設計之二階對稱型振盪電路 4 類比電流式電路之分析與應用

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