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研究生:林孟翰
研究生(外文):Mon-hang Lin
論文名稱:自行車騎乘姿勢對舒適度之影響
論文名稱(外文):The effect of bicycle riding posture on comfort
指導教授:吳欣潔吳欣潔引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsin-Chieh Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:舒適度自行車壓力騎乘姿勢
外文關鍵詞:bicyclecomfortpressureposture
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騎乘自行車時的姿勢和舒適性有著密切的關係;騎乘姿勢與個人的身材特性與車種尺寸有關。本研究目的在探討自行車的把手與坐墊高度對於騎乘舒適度的影響。受試者為20位成年人(男女各半),平均年齡24.6歲(SD=0.1),在九種不同騎乘姿勢(三種把手高度*三種坐墊高度)下,收集其心搏率(heart rate)、把手與坐墊接觸力量與手部和臀部位移、身體各部位關節角度,以及主觀舒適度評量表。
實驗結果顯示,騎乘姿勢為自選把手和坐墊高度,有較低的主觀不舒適。此時軀幹角度趨近於38度性別差異會影響男性受試者的臀部與手部力量,顯著的大於女性。110%自選座墊高度會大幅的增加髖關節的外展角度與手腕力量,因此不舒適性增加。
110%坐墊自選高度造成臀部位移的距離較大,而在手部位移較無明顯。手腕在組合F(90%把手自選高度與110%坐墊自選高度)時手腕上的力量為6.1kg,而臀部在組合I(110%把手自選高度與90%坐墊自選高度)時,臀部上的力量高達16.8kg,主觀不舒適度都顯著的較高。
Bicycle riding posture and comfort are closely related; riding posture is related to personal characteristics and size of the vehicles. This study was aimsd at exploring the effects of the bike''s handle and seat height on riding comfort. Twenty adults (10 men and 10 women) with mean age 24.6 years (SD=0.1) were asked to perform 9 cycling tests in 9 different riding postures (3 handle heights *3 seat height). The heart rate, contact pressure on the handle and seat, displacement of hand and buttock, joint angles and subjective ratings of body comfort were collected.
The experimental results showed that the posture of free-choice handle and seat height had less uncomfortable feeling. This posture had about 38° in the upper body. The male participants had significantly greater strength on the buttock and the hand than the female. The 110% choice seat height could increased the adduction angle in the hip joint and the strength of hand ,resulting in more uncomfortable raings.
110% free-choice seat height had more displacement of buttock, but had no significantly more. The strength of the wrist is 6.1kg on wrist in combination F (90% height and 110% hand-demand choice seat height) and the hip of the strength of up to 16.8kg on combination I (110% hand-demand choice seat height and 90% height), ,subjective comfort are not significantly higher.
摘要.......................................................................................................................I
Abstract...............................................................................................................II
目錄.....................................................................................................................IV
圖目錄...............................................................................................................VII
表目錄..................................................................................................................X
表目錄..................................................................................................................X
第一章緒論.........................................................................................................1
第一節 研究背景及動機..............................................................................1
第二節 研究目的..........................................................................................2
第三節 研究範圍與限制..............................................................................2
第四節 研究架構..........................................................................................3
第二章文獻探討...............................................................................................5
第一節 自行車騎乘姿勢之研究探討..........................................................5
第二節 握把舒適度之研究探討..................................................................6
第三節 座椅舒適度之研究探討..................................................................9
第三章研究方法...............................................................................................13
第一節 受測者............................................................................................14
第二節 實驗設備........................................................................................14
V
第三節 實驗限制........................................................................................21
第四節 實驗設計與流程............................................................................21
第五節 實驗流程........................................................................................27
第六節 資料處理........................................................................................32
第四章結果.......................................................................................................33
第一節 受測者............................................................................................33
第二節 把手與坐墊位置對騎乘舒適度的影響........................................34
第三節 性別與騎乘姿勢對身體舒適度的影響........................................58
第五章討論.......................................................................................................65
第一節 自行車把手高低之舒適度影響....................................................65
第二節 自行車座椅高低之舒適度影響....................................................66
第三節 性別差異對關節角度之影響........................................................67
第四節 性別差異對心搏率之影響............................................................68
第五節 性別差異對壓力與位移之影響....................................................69
第六節 主觀評量問卷................................................................................70
第七節 研究限制........................................................................................71
第六章結論與建議...........................................................................................72
第一節 結論................................................................................................72
第二節 建議................................................................................................73
VI
參考文獻.............................................................................................................74
附錄一受測者同意書.....................................................................................80
附錄二受試者基本資料.................................................................................81
附錄三主觀不舒適量表.................................................................................83
VII
圖目錄
圖2-1 軀幹角度...............................................................................................5
圖 2-2 (a) 登山車平把.....................................................................................8
圖2-2 (b) 公路車彎把.....................................................................................8
圖2-2 (c) 淑女車車把......................................................................................8
圖2-3 正中神經病變.......................................................................................9
圖2-4(a) 標準設計型座椅.............................................................................10
圖2-4(b) 局部透氣設計型座椅....................................................................10
圖2-4(c)完全透氣設計型座椅.......................................................................11
圖3-1 實驗地點.............................................................................................13
圖3-2 Zebris 超音波接收器..........................................................................15
圖3-3 Zebris 超音波發射器..........................................................................15
圖3-4 PS2數據擷取器...................................................................................16
圖3-5 臀部薄膜壓力感測片.........................................................................16
圖3-6臀部壓力分析軟體(CONFORMat 6.20).............................................17
圖3-7 可調高度自行車.................................................................................18
圖3-8 可調磁阻式訓練機台.........................................................................18
圖3-9 POLAR心率錶.....................................................................................19
圖3-10 感應器佩帶位置...............................................................................19
VIII
圖3-11 同步滑鼠...........................................................................................20
圖3-12 臀部與手部示意圖...........................................................................23
圖3-13 單位設定...........................................................................................24
圖3-14時間與次數設定................................................................................24
圖3-15 Show Panes臀部與手部.....................................................................25
圖3-16 Add Line臀部與手部.........................................................................25
圖3-17 實驗流程...........................................................................................28
圖3-18 腿長...................................................................................................29
圖3-19 手臂長...............................................................................................30
圖3-20 軀幹角度定義...................................................................................30
圖3-21 跨高量測方式...................................................................................31
圖4-1把手與坐墊的關係..............................................................................36
圖4-2 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下的手腕尺偏平均角度.........................40
圖4-3 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下的手腕屈曲伸展平均角度.................40
圖4-4 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下的軀幹角度平均角度.........................42
圖4-5 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下的髖關節平均角度.............................44
圖4-6 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下的平均手部力量.................................50
圖4-7 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下的平均臀部位移.................................50
圖4-8 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下的平均運動強度.................................53
IX
圖 4-9 九種不同組合下性別對臀部力量、臀部與手部位移與之影響....59
圖4-10九種把手與坐墊高度組合下性別對膝關節之平均角度................61
圖4-11九種把手與坐墊高度組合下性別對坐墊位移之平均....................62
圖4-12 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下性別對手部位移之平均...................63
圖4-13 九種把手與坐墊高度組合下的平均主觀評量表...........................64
圖5-1 壓力與手部力量關係圖.....................................................................65
X
表目錄
表 3-1 Borg量表.............................................................................................26
表 3-2 把手與坐墊的關係............................................................................22
表 4-1受試者基本資料.................................................................................33
表 4-2把手與坐墊的關係.............................................................................34
表 4-3手腕尺偏角度在九種不同組合之平均數標準差.............................37
表 4-4手腕屈曲伸展角度在九種不同組合之平均數標準差.....................38
表 4-5 以Duncan檢定九種組合下手腕尺偏角度的差異...........................39
表 4-6 以Duncan檢定九種組合下手腕屈曲伸展角度的差異...................39
表 4-7 軀幹角度在九種不同組合之平均數與標準差................................41
表 4-8 以Duncan檢定九種組合下軀幹角度的差異...................................42
表 4-9 髖關節外展內收角度在九種不同組合之平均數與標準差............43
表 4-10 以Duncan檢定九種組合下髖關節外展內收的差異.....................44
表 4-11 膝關節活動角度在九種不同組合之平均數與標準差..................45
表 4-12 手部位移在九種不同組合之平均值與標準差..............................46
表 4-13 手部力量在九種不同組合之平均值與標準差..............................46
表 4-14 臀部位移在九種不同組合之平均值與標準差..............................47
表 4-15 臀部力量在九種不同組合之平均值與標準差..............................47
表 4-16 以Duncan檢定九種組合下手部力量的差異.................................49
XI
表 4-17以Duncan檢定九種組合下座墊位移的差異..................................49
表 4-18 心搏率在九種不同組合之平均數與標準差..................................51
表 4-19 以Duncan檢定九種組合下心搏率的差異.....................................52
表 4-20 主觀問卷在九種不同組合之平均數與標準差..............................54
表 4-21 主觀問卷在九種不同組合之平均數與標準差..............................54
表 4-22 主觀問卷在九種不同組合之差異(實驗後-實驗前)......................55
表 4-23以Duncan檢定九種組合下主觀不舒適度的差異..........................56
表 4-24 以Duncan檢定九種組合下主觀不舒適度的差異.........................57
表 4-25性別與騎乘姿勢對關節角度舒適度之變異數分析.......................59
表 4-26以Duncan檢定九種組合下性別對膝關節角度的差異..................60
表 4-27以Duncan檢定九種組合下性別對臀部位移的差異......................61
表 4-28以Duncan檢定九種組合下性別對手部位移的差異......................63
表 4-29 主觀問卷之不同性別、姿勢之差異性分析..................................64
表 5-1 關節角度與性別之相關係數矩陣....................................................68
表 5-2心搏率與性別之相關係數矩陣.........................................................69
表 5-3壓力與性別之相關係數矩陣.............................................................70
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