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研究生:林俊邦
研究生(外文):Jim-Bon Lin
論文名稱:基於多代理人系統之工作流程排程
論文名稱(外文):Workflow Scheduling Based on Multi-agent Systems
指導教授:謝富雄
指導教授(外文):Fu-Shiung Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:朝陽科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:時間派翠網路契約網協定排程工作流程多代理人系統
外文關鍵詞:Time Petri NetSchedulingWorklfowContract Net ProtocolMulti-agent Systems
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 下載下載:28
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
隨著人事流動與人事成本比例的提高,工作流程自動化能夠有效的降低成本和提高產能,這也是企業組織和政府單位所期望達成的目標。在工廠的製造流程中通常會經由一些工作流程和操作來生產一件產品,而這些工作流程和操作都會需要利用製造資源(包括人力和機器)來支援完成這項工作。因此在工作流程排程中,一項關鍵的問題是當工廠管理者接收到一份訂單時,必須要能夠確定這份訂單能夠在期限下利用可用的資源完成,並且滿足訂單需求。本篇論文的目標在於提出一個有效和有系統的方法,來解決在製造業中工作流程的排程問題。為了解決這個問題,我們的方法是基於時間派翠網路(Time Petri Net)建立工作流程與資源活動的模型,以及利用契約網協定(Contract Net Protocol)和多代理人系統(Multi-agent Systems, MAS)來達成工作流程與資源之間的協商。此外我們的工作流程排程演算法是結合最小成本流演算法(Minimum Cost Flow)、次梯度演算法(Subgradient algorithm)、啟發式演算法(Heuristic algorithm)和負載平衡(Load Balance)的概念來計算工作流程中每個操作所需要的資源,以及執行的時間區間和生產的數量。最後我們是運用Java代理人開發框架(Java Agent DEvelopment Framework, JADE)軟體平台來實現整個排程系統,並且利用流程圖和甘特圖的方式驗證排程結果。
Workflow automation can effectively reduce costs, increase productivity and achieve the goal of business organizations and government agencies. Usually it requires workflows and operations to manufacture a product in a factory. These workflows and operations will need to make use of manpower and machines to complete the production processes. The manpower and machines are resources in the manufacturing systems. In workflow scheduling, an important issue for order managers is to determine whether the requirements of an order can be met by the deadline using the available resources. The objectives of this paper are to propose an effective and systematic approach to solving workflow scheduling problems in manufacturing sector. To solve this problem, our approach is based on Timed Petri Net (TPN) to construct models of workflows and resource activities, and uses the Contract Net Protocol (CNP) as well as multi-agent systems (MAS) to achieve the negotiation between the workflow and resources. In addition, our workflow scheduling algorithm combines the minimum cost flow algorithm, subgradient algorithm, heuristic algorithm and the concept of load balance for the calculation of resources and time interval and the production quantity of each operation in workflow. Finally, we develop a multi-agent scheduling simulation software based on the Java Agent DEvelopment Framework (JADE) and use flow charts and Gantt charts to verify that the scheduling results.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 V
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 簡介 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目標與方法 7
1.3 論文架構 11
第二章 文獻回顧 13
2.1 製造規劃系統的演進 13
2.2 先進規劃排程系統 14
2.2.1 先進規劃排程系統簡介 14
2.2.2 先進規劃排程系統相關文獻探討 19
2.3 多代理人系統 21
2.3.1 代理人介紹 21
2.3.2 多代理人系統定義 24
2.3.3 多代理人系統在製造系統的應用 26
第三章 代理人協商機制 30
3.1 場景設計 30
3.2 契約網協定介紹 33
3.2 協商過程 35
3.2.1 工作流程代理人與資源代理人協商 38
3.2.2 上下游工作流程代理人協商 42
第四章 代理人工作流程與資源活動建模 48
4.1 時間派翠網路 48
4.1.1 時間派翠網路概述 48
4.1.2 時間派翠網路特性 49
4.1.3 派翠網路標記語言 52
4.2 工作流程建模 57
4.3 資源活動建模 60
第五章 排程演算法設計 63
5.1 最小成本流演算法 63
5.1.1 最小成本流問題 63
5.1.2 最小成本流排程演算法 66
5.1.3 最小成本流排程演算法遇到的問題 71
5.2 Lagrangian relaxation演算法 73
5.2.1 Lagrangian relaxation介紹 73
5.2.2 Lagrangian relaxation之理論推導 74
5.2.3 利用次梯度演算法修正Lagrangian乘數 77
5.2.4 收斂的判斷 78
5.3 啟發式演算法 78
5.4 負載平衡 81
5.5 總排程演算法流程 82
第六章 模擬與結果 84
6.1 JADE介紹 84
6.2 系統架構 88
6.3 模擬參數設定 89
6.4 模擬過程 93
6.5 模擬結果分析 100
第七章 結論 111
參考文獻 116
附錄 A 模擬參數 125

表目錄
表2.1 先進規劃排程系統各模式比較表[38] .............................................. 19
表3.1 代理人代表 ......................................................................................... 36
表3.2 上下游工作流程代理人協商範例 ..................................................... 43
表4.1 時間派翠網路數學定義表 ................................................................. 50
表4.2 時間派翠網路圖形定義表 ................................................................. 50
表4.3 PNML標籤屬性表[64] ....................................................................... 53
表4.4 時間派翠網路範例模型PNML文件 .................................................. 54
表5.1 成本網路流符號表 ............................................................................. 67
表6.1 訂單編號1排程結果 ....................................................................... 101
表6.2 訂單編號2排程結果 ....................................................................... 103
表6.3 訂單編號3排程結果 ....................................................................... 104
表A.1 訂單要求 ........................................................................................... 125
表A.2 工作流程代理人屬性 ....................................................................... 125
表A.3 Input和Output工作流程位置屬性 ................................................... 126
表A.4 資源代理人屬性 ............................................................................... 127
表A.5 手動投標的資源代理人空閒時間 ................................................... 127


圖目錄
圖2.1 管理資訊系統的演進[37] .................................................................. 13
圖2.2 同步規劃的先進規劃排程系統[38] .................................................. 16
圖2.3 先進規劃排程系統功能模組[43] ...................................................... 17
圖2.4 代理人與環境互動關係[50] .............................................................. 22
圖2.5 多代理人系統平台開發架構流程[57] .............................................. 25
圖2.6 代理人框架[1] .................................................................................... 27
圖3.1 工廠製造場景 ..................................................................................... 32
圖3.2 契約網協定-Call For Proposal ........................................................... 33
圖3.3 契約網協定-PROPOSE ...................................................................... 34
圖3.4 契約網協定-ACCEPT_PROPOSAL .................................................. 35
圖3.5 契約網協定-INFORM ........................................................................ 35
圖3.6 代理人協商架構圖 ............................................................................. 37
圖3.7 工作流程與資源協商順序圖-CFP .................................................... 38
圖3.8 工作流程與資源協商順序圖-PROPOSE .......................................... 39
圖3.9 工作流程與資源協商順序圖-最佳解要求與回應 ........................... 39
圖3.10 工作流程與資源協商順序圖-ACCEPT_PROPOSAL ..................... 40
圖3.11 工作流程與資源協商順序圖-INFORM ............................................ 41
圖3.12 工作流程樹範例 ................................................................................. 43
圖3.13 工作流程之間協商順序圖-提出訂單 ............................................... 43
圖3.14 工作流程之間協商順序圖-工作流程協商 ....................................... 46
圖3.15 工作流程之間協商順序圖-完成訂單 ............................................... 47
圖4.1 原始時間派翠網路圖 ......................................................................... 51
圖4.2 觸發後時間派翠網路圖 ..................................................................... 52
圖4.3 時間派翠網路範例模型圖 ................................................................. 54
圖4.4 工作流程模型範例圖 ......................................................................... 58
圖4.5 加入位置的工作流程模型範例圖 ..................................................... 59
圖4.6 資源活動模型範例圖-空閒狀態 ....................................................... 60
圖4.7 資源活動模型範例圖-忙碌狀態 ....................................................... 61
圖4.8 資源多個活動模型範例圖 ................................................................. 61
圖5.1 最小成本流範例 ................................................................................. 64
圖5.2 最小成本流範例最佳解 ..................................................................... 65
圖5.3 進貨流程範例原始網路圖 ................................................................. 68
圖5.4 進貨流程範例最佳解網路圖 ............................................................. 69
圖5.5 製造流程範例原始網路圖 ................................................................. 70
圖5.6 製造流程範例最佳解網路圖 ............................................................. 71
圖5.7 具有衝突問題的網路圖 ..................................................................... 72
圖5.8 未具有衝突問題的網路圖 ................................................................. 72
圖5.9 Lagrangian relaxation演算法結構...................................................... 76
圖5.10 啟發式演算法流程圖 ......................................................................... 80
圖5.11 總排程演算法流程圖 ......................................................................... 83
圖6.1 代理人管理參考模型[75] .................................................................. 85
圖6.2 JADE平台與容器架構圖[25] ............................................................ 86
圖6.3 JADE GUI視窗 ................................................................................... 87
圖6.4 排程系統架構圖 ................................................................................. 89
圖6.5 模擬範例工作流程關係 ..................................................................... 91
圖6.6 W1加入位置的工作流程模型 .......................................................... 91
圖6.7 R1加入位置的資源活動模型 ........................................................... 93
圖6.8 各類型代理人視窗 ............................................................................. 94
圖6.9 設定工作流程屬性視窗 ..................................................................... 95
圖6.10 設定資源屬性視窗 ............................................................................. 96
圖6.11 資源定位視窗 ..................................................................................... 96
圖6.12 資源代理人手動提出計畫視窗 ......................................................... 97
圖6.13 資源代理人手動建立契約視窗 ......................................................... 98
圖6.14 設定訂單要求視窗 ............................................................................. 98
圖6.15 訂單編號3處理流程 ......................................................................... 99
圖6.16 訂單編號1排程結果流程圖 ........................................................... 100
圖6.17 訂單編號2排程結果流程圖 ........................................................... 102
圖6.18 訂單編號3排程結果流程圖 ........................................................... 103
圖6.19 資源R1~R3甘特圖 .......................................................................... 105
圖6.20 資源R4~R8甘特圖 .......................................................................... 106
圖6.21 資源R9~R13甘特圖 ........................................................................ 107
圖6.23 訂單編號2生產流程模型 ............................................................... 109
圖6.24 訂單編號3生產流程模型 ............................................................... 110
圖A.1 模擬範例工作流程模型 ................................................................... 128
圖A.2 模擬範例資源活動模型 ................................................................... 129
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