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研究生:楊喬凱
研究生(外文):Yang, Chiao-Kai
論文名稱:應用溫度/時間控制系統及添加葡萄糖酸內酯對酸肉品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Application of Temperature/Time Control System and Glucono-Delta-Lactone on Sour Meat Quality
指導教授:陳明造陳明造引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Ming-Tsao
口試委員:曾再富顏裕鴻
口試委員(外文):Tseng, Tasi-FuhYen, Yue-Horng
口試日期:2012-07-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:生物產業科技學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:酸肉葡萄糖酸內酯胜肽溫度/時間控制系統
外文關鍵詞:sour meatGDLpeptideT/T control system
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本研究旨在應用溫度/時間控制系統之條件,以及兩種配方添加葡萄糖酸內酯(GDL)後之酸肉,來探討不同發酵時間、溫度之pH值、可滴定酸、微生物之生長情形、揮發性鹽基態氮、SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜之變化、有機酸含量及胜肽含量之變化。結果顯示:添加GDL之兩組酸肉在短時間內可快速降低pH值至5.3,有助於提升食品安全性,而自然發酵之酸肉則需較長的時間pH值才至5.3;經過溫度/時間控制系統換算之後,四組酸肉皆符合恆溫控制系統之準則;揮發性鹽基態氮:自然發酵之酸肉隨著時間增加逐漸增高,而有添加GDL之酸肉,肉質可保持在尚佳的狀態。在總菌數、乳酸菌數以及好氧菌數:自然發酵之酸肉於發酵終止後最高達到9.24 log CFU/g,添加GDL之酸肉只有6.7 log CFU/g,此結果可以得知添加GDL可快速降低pH值,亦可抑制雜菌的生長,以延長酸肉的保存時間。有機酸含量以醋酸的含量為最高,另外,四組酸肉皆未添加乳酸菌進行發酵,經檢測後有少量的乳酸呈現,結果顯示自然發酵之酸肉亦有乳酸菌的存在。電泳分析之結果,酸肉於添加GDL後,蛋白質片段部分明顯少於自然發酵之酸肉。胜肽含量在24小時、35℃於發酵終止時,皆達到最高之胜肽含量。本試驗的結果得知,應用溫度/時間控制系統並添加GDL有助於食品安全之效果以及延長酸肉的保存時間。
The purpose of this research is to study effects of application of temperature/time control system and glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) on sour meat quality. In the experiment, two recipes ( A and B ) were used as the control, then separately added with GDL as the treatments ( A + GDL and B + GDL ) and fermented at different temperatures and times. The changes in pH value, titratable acidity, microbial counts, volatile basic nitrogen content ( VBN ), SDS-PAGE pattern of muscle proteins, organic acid and peptide content of the sour ment samples were analyzed. The results were showed as follows: The results showed that the two sour meat samples added GDL could decline the pH value to 5.3 – a safe level which was useful to increase food safety. However, the naturally fermented sour meat samples ( the control groups, without GDL ) needed to take a longer time to lower the pH value to 5.3. Depending on temperature / time control system, after calculation, it was found that four group samples all met constant of the controls increased with the storage time extended, but the GDL added samples still maintained a low level of VBN. As to total microbial, lactic acid bacterial and aerobic bacterial counts for the control samples were up to 9.24 log CFU/g after fermentation, and the GDL added samples just grew to 6.71 log CFU/g. These results were noted that GDL addition could lower pH value of the sour meat in a short time, and it also could inhibited the microbial growth to extend the storage life of the sour meat. Additionally, the result of organic acid analysis, it was found acetic acid was the highest in the sour meat. However, there was slight amount of lactic acid detected in the sour meat which no lactic acid bacteria ( LAB ) added. This result indicated that there were LAB presented in the sour meat even it was a natural fermentation. The SDS-PAGE electrophoretogram showed the fragments of muscle proteins for the sour meat added GDL were lower than those of muscle proteins in the natural fermentation sour meat samples. It was found the peptide content was the highest in the samples fermented at 35℃ for 24 hours. From these results, it can be concluded that the application of temperature / time control system and GDL to prepare the sour meat is helpful to food safety and extend its storagetime.
目錄

封面內頁
簽名頁
中文摘要iii
英文摘要iv
誌謝vi
目錄viii
圖目錄xi
表目錄xiii

1. 前言1
2. 文獻回顧3
2.1 發酵食品3
2.2 發酵肉原料簡介4
2.3 發酵肉品的歷史5
2.4 發酵肉製品的分類與特性6
2.5 菌酛(starter culture)在發酵肉品上之應用7
2.6 蛋白質水解作用與胜肽之應用10
2.6.1 蛋白質之水解作用10
2.6.2 胜肽之應用11
2.7溫度/時間控制系統12
2.8葡萄糖酸內酯13
3. 材料與方法15
3.1 實驗藥品與儀器15
3.1.2 材料15
3.1.2 藥品15
3.1.3 儀器設備16
3.2 實驗方法17
3.2.1 酸肉配方17
3.2.2 酸肉製作流程18
3.3 分析項目19
3.3.1 酸鹼值測定19
3.3.1.1 溫度與時間控制系統19
3.3.2 可滴定酸測定22
3.3.3 總生菌數測定22
3.3.4 乳酸菌數測定23
3.3.5 好氧菌數測定23
3.3.6 揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)含量分析23
3.3.7 有機酸測定25
3.3.7.1 分析條件25
3.3.7.2 樣品萃取25
3.3.7.3 標準品配置26
3.3.7.4 樣品分析26
3.3.8 SDS-PAGE電泳分析28
3.3.8.1 水溶性蛋白之萃取28
3.3.8.2 鹽溶性蛋白之萃取28
3.3.8.3 蛋白質變性流程28
3.3.8.4 溶液配置29
3.3.8.5 鑄膠30
3.3.8.6 電泳條件30
3.3.8.7 膠片染色及脫色30
3.3.9 胜肽含量之測定32
3.3.9.1 胜肽萃取液之製備32
3.3.9.2 胜肽之測定32
3.4 統計分析與繪圖34
4. 結果與討論35
4.1 酸肉pH值的變化35
4.2 可滴定酸40
4.3 總生菌數、乳酸菌數以及好氧菌數之比較44
4.4 揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)含量之比較55
4.5 酸肉之有機酸含量59
4.6 酸肉中蛋白質之SDS-PAGE電泳分析圖譜65
4.7 不同酸肉配方之胜肽含量之變化74
5. 結論78
參考文獻79


圖目錄
圖3.1雙肽標準曲線33
圖4.1不同酸肉配方於25℃發酵期間pH之變化36
圖4.2不同酸肉配方於30℃發酵期間pH之變化37
圖4.3不同酸肉配方於35℃發酵期間pH之變化38
圖4.4不同酸肉配方於25℃發酵期間滴定酸之變化41
圖4.5不同酸肉配方於30℃發酵期間滴定酸之變化42
圖4.6不同酸肉配方於35℃發酵期間滴定酸之變化43
圖4.7不同酸肉配方於25℃發酵期間總生菌數之變化46
圖4.8不同酸肉配方於30℃發酵期間總生菌數之變化47
圖4.9不同酸肉配方於35℃發酵期間總生菌數之變化48
圖4.10不同酸肉配方於25℃發酵期間乳酸菌數之變化49
圖4.11不同酸肉配方於30℃發酵期間乳酸菌數之變化50
圖4.12不同酸肉配方於35℃發酵期間乳酸菌數之變化51
圖4.13不同酸肉配方於25℃發酵期間好氧菌數之變化52
圖4.14不同酸肉配方於30℃發酵期間好氧菌數之變化53
圖4.15不同酸肉配方於35℃發酵期間好氧菌數之變化54
圖4.16不同酸肉配方於25℃發酵期間VBN值之變化56
圖4.17不同酸肉配方於30℃發酵期間VBN值之變化57
圖4.18不同酸肉配方於35℃發酵期間VBN值之變化58
圖4.19不同發酵溫度製備A組配方酸肉之水溶性蛋白(WSP)SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜66
圖4.20不同發酵溫度製備A組配方酸肉之鹽溶性蛋白(SSP)SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜67
圖4.21不同發酵溫度製備AG組配方酸肉之水溶性蛋白(WSP)SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜68
圖4.22不同發酵溫度製備AG組配方酸肉之鹽溶性蛋白(SSP)SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜69
圖4.23不同發酵溫度製備B組配方酸肉之水溶性蛋白(WSP)SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜70
圖4.24不同發酵溫度製備B組配方酸肉之鹽溶性蛋白(SSP)SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜71
圖4.25不同發酵溫度製備BG組配方酸肉之水溶性蛋白(WSP)SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜72
圖4.26不同發酵溫度製備BG組配方酸肉之鹽溶性蛋白(SSP)SDS-PAGE電泳圖譜73
圖4.27不同酸肉配方於25℃發酵期間胜肽含量之變化75
圖4.28不同酸肉配方於30℃發酵期間胜肽含量之變化76
圖4.29不同酸肉配方於35℃發酵期間胜肽含量之變化77

表目錄
表2.1乾燥香腸自然熟成之相關微生物9
表3.1恆溫過程標準21
表3.2有機酸標準品之滯留時間27
表3.3分離膠組成31
表3.4排列膠組成31
表4.1不同酸肉配方於pH5.3之恆溫標準比較39
表4.2不同配方之酸肉在不同發酵溫度與時間下草酸含量之變化60
表4.3不同配方之酸肉在不同發酵溫度與時間下甲酸含量之變化61
表4.4不同配方之酸肉在不同發酵溫度與時間下醋酸含量之變化62
表4.5不同配方之酸肉在不同發酵溫度與時間下乳酸含量之變化63
表4.6不同配方之酸肉在不同發酵溫度與時間下檸檬酸含量之變化64

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