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研究生:王景弘
研究生(外文):Wang, Jing-hung
論文名稱:複合食品之平衡水分流動性與水分轉移研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Sorption Isotherms and Moisture Migration of Composite Foods
指導教授:王維麒
指導教授(外文):Wang,Wei-Ci
口試委員:張德明顏裕鴻
口試委員(外文):Chang, Deh-MingYen, Yue-horng
口試日期:2012/07/20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大葉大學
系所名稱:生物產業科技學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:複合食品平衡含水率水分流動性水分轉移官能品評
外文關鍵詞:composite foodequilibrium moisture contentmoisture migrationsensory evaluationmoisture transfer
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:237
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  • 下載下載:40
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
保存食品中之成份多於一種者,稱之為複合食品(composite foods),水分轉移現象常發生於許多複合食品,當在長期保存之下,其各異質成份間容易發生水分轉移之情形,對於食品品質衝擊甚巨,亦可能傷害食品安全。過去有關複合食品水分之研究多偏重於整體水活性探討,很少及於異質成份之平衡含水率及其間水分轉移。因此本研究選用市售含兩種相異成份之複合食品做為樣本,休閒食品之杏仁小魚乾及穀類早餐玉米片葡萄乾,分別以單獨存放或共同存放於八種不同相對濕度環境下,以靜置法(static method)建立其平衡含水率曲線,同時分析其水分流動性,進而觀察水分於異質間之轉移,及對平衡含水率之影響;此外,將兩種複合食品於保存期間進行官能品評研究,以了解異質成份水分轉移對於消費者感官之影響。實驗結果顯示杏仁小魚乾與玉米片葡萄乾,兩種複合食品隨著存放環境相對濕度之上升,平衡含水率亦增加,其原因為食品之水活性較其所接觸之環境相對濕度低時,食品會逐漸吸收環境中之水分。杏仁小魚乾平衡含水率測定結果顯示,當小魚乾與杏仁共同存放時,其水活性受杏仁相互作用影響而上升,而杏仁因富含油脂與結構較為密實,故所受之影響並不明顯,而當杏仁與小魚乾共同存放於相對濕度高之環境,小魚乾含水量會迅速上升,影響食品品質亦可能造成食品腐敗。而玉米片與葡萄乾平衡含水率測定結果顯示,玉米片容易吸收外在之水分,但其所受之影響並不表現於水活性上,因此玉米片為一穩定之成份,有助於食品品質;共同存放之葡萄乾平衡含水率曲線有明顯向左偏移趨勢,兩異質成分間相互作用之影響使得葡萄乾水活性變小,其原因為葡萄乾部分自由水被環境與玉米片所吸收,因此使得水活性降低。上述結果顯示複合食品於保存環境中,異質成份間會產生水分相互作用,其確實對於食品之平衡含水率與水活性造成影響。官能品評方面,杏仁小魚乾存放於乾燥環境、一般環境及剛拆開包裝之對照組,三者在得分上並無明顯之差異,而以對照組總體嗜好性具有較佳之接受度。玉米片葡萄乾官能品評試驗結果顯示,存放於乾燥環境中最受品評人員喜愛。

Preserved foods containing more than one component are called as composite foods, among which moisture transfer phenomenon often occurs. In the condition of long-term preservation, moisture transfer easily occurs among each heterogeneous component, results in a tremendous impact on food quality, and affects food safety. Previous studies of the moisture in composite foods focused on discussions of overall water activity, and seldom involved equilibrium moisture content of heterogeneous components and moisture transfer among them. Therefore, this study selected composite foods containing two types of different components, sold in markets, as samples. Then established their sorption isotherms by static method, and analyzed their moisture migration so as to further observe the transfer of moisture between heterogeneous components and its effects on equilibrium moisture content after separately or commonly storing. Samples including almonds & dried fishes and cereals & raisins were stored in 8 relatively different humidity environments. Besides, researches in sensory evaluation on two types of composite food were carried out in the shelf life in order to understand effects of moisture transfer between heterogeneous components on consumers’ sensory organs. Experimental results showed equilibrium moisture content of two types of composite foods, including almonds & dried fishes and cereal & raisins, increased with the rise in relative humidity of preserved environment. The reason was that food absorbed moisture in the environment gradually when food’s water activity was relatively low. Results of measurement of equilibrium moisture content in almonds and dried fishes showed that when they were preserved together, dried fishes water activity rises due to interactions with almonds while effects on almonds, were not obvious due to structural denseness and rich in fat. But moisture content of dried fishes rose immediately, which will affect food quality and cause food spoilage. Results of measurement of equilibrium moisture content of cereal and raisin showed cereal as stable component, which is beneficial to food quality, since effects from cereal absorbing condition water were not shown on water activity. Raisin’s sorption isotherms for common preserved had the trend to move towards left obviously when preserved with cereal. The effect of interactions between two heterogeneous components reduced the water activity of raisin. The above results showed moisture interaction occurred between heterogeneous components when composite foods were in preservation, and it indeed affected equilibrium moisture content and water activity of food.In terms of sensory evaluation, three control groups of almonds and dried fishes in dry condition, general condition and in the condition of just unpacked had no significant differences in scores. However, overall preference of control groups was well accepted. Sensory evaluation experiments for cereal and raisins showed foods stored in dry condition were the best loved by judges.

封面內頁 i
簽名頁 ii
中文摘要 iii
英文摘要 v
誌謝 vii
目錄 viii
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xi

1. 緒論 1
2. 文獻回顧 2
2.1 水之性質與結構 2
2.2 食品中之水分結構 2
2.3 水活性與水分流動性 4
2.4 平衡含水率曲線 8
2.5 官能品評與其相關性 10
2.6 複合食品與水分結構變化 13
3. 研究方法 15
3.1 實驗材料 15
3.2 實驗藥品 15
3.3 實驗設備 16
3.4 實驗方法 16
3.4.1 保存環境設定 16
3.4.2 平衡含水率測定 18
3.4.3 保存實驗 20
3.4.4 官能品評 21
4. 結果與討論 24
4.1 不同溫度環境下對於杏仁小魚乾影響之探討 24
4.1.1 平衡含水率之變化 24
4.1.2 官能品評 28
4.2 不同溫度環境下對於玉米片葡萄乾影響之探討 31
4.2.1 平衡含水率之變化 32
4.2.2 官能品評 34
5. 結論 39
5.1 總結 39
5.2 未來展望 40
參考文獻 41
圖目錄
圖2-1 影響食品穩定因素和水活性之相關性 6
圖2-2 食品平衡含水率曲線 9
圖2-3 生鮮樣品經過50℃預熱處理之等溫脫濕曲線(馬鈴薯) 11
圖4-1 杏仁與小魚乾單獨或共同存放於常溫下平衡含水率曲線 26
圖4-2 杏仁小魚乾之官能品評(a)外觀(b)香氣(c)口感 29
圖4-3 杏仁小魚乾之總體嗜好性 30
圖4-4 玉米片與葡萄乾單獨或共同存放於常溫下平衡含水率曲線(1) 33
圖4-5 玉米片與葡萄乾單獨或共同存放於常溫下平衡含水率曲線(2) 35
圖4-6 玉米片葡萄乾之官能品評(a)外觀(b)香氣(c)口感 36
圖4-7 玉米片葡萄乾之總體嗜好性 38
表目錄
表3-1 各種飽和水溶液於室溫下之平衡相對濕度 17
表3-2 實驗樣本於原包裝內之重量比及實驗重量 19
表3-3 杏仁小魚乾嗜好性品評表 22
表3-4 玉米片葡萄乾嗜好性品評表 23
表4-1 杏仁、小魚乾、玉米片、葡萄乾之原始含水量 25

參考文獻
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2.王家仁。1984。蜜餞之加工原理。食品工業15(9):17-20。
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