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研究生:劉伯仲
研究生(外文):Liu, Po-Chung
論文名稱:情緒如何調節年長者與失智症年長者的記憶
論文名稱(外文):The role of social relevancy and positive emotion on elder Chinese and dementia memory performance
指導教授:黃揚名黃揚名引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Yang-Ming
口試委員:葉怡玉邱倚璿
口試委員(外文):Yeh, Yei-YuChiu, Yi Shiuan
口試日期:2012-01-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:心理學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:43
中文關鍵詞:情緒記憶年長者失智症社會文化
外文關鍵詞:EmotionMemoryElderlyDementiaSocial culture
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  根據過去國外的研究中發現,年輕人對於負向情緒刺激有較佳的記憶,而年長者則對正向情緒的訊息有著較佳的記憶。過去研究顯示年長者有較佳的情緒調控策略,因此會選擇不處理負向情緒刺激,而傾向處理正向情緒刺激。然而過去在香港地區進行的結果則有不同的發現,香港的年長者會傾向處理負向情緒刺激,研究者並推論文化背景對於這個現象有影響。本研究為進一步檢視台灣地區年長者是否對於正向情緒刺激也不會有處理的優勢,在者加入刺激的社交相關程度,來檢視社交訊息對於年長者記憶的影響。除此之外,本研究也企圖了解這兩個因子對於失智症長者的影響。
  研究結果顯示,在實驗一圖片材料中,年輕人對於正向情緒的訊息有較佳的表現。而年長者對於與高社交相關的訊息記憶表現較差。在實驗二文字材料中,同樣出現年輕人對於正向情緒的材料有較好的記憶;但有別於實驗一的結果,年長者對於高社交相關的文字訊息並沒有較差的記憶表現。另在實驗三的失智症長者組部分,情緒及社交相關程度對於他們的記憶均沒有影響。
  我們的研究有相類似的結果與先前在香港地區的研究,同樣的是沒有發現到年長者有正向情緒的效果,推測有華人有者不同於國外影響情緒記憶的因子,並不會受到正向情緒的影響。特別的是,台灣長者對於與高度社交相關的訊息記憶處理上有較差的表現。推測可能因為社會文化的影響下,在高度社交訊息中對於非正向訊息過度關注反而造成行為反應的錯誤判斷。

Abundant amount of evidence suggest that young adult are biased toward the pro-cessing of negative stimuli while the elderly are biased toward the processing of positive stimuli. It is hypothesized that the elderly have developed better emotional regulation strategy; hence, they avoid the processing of negative stimuli and biased toward the processing of positive mood to enhance their positive mood. However, such phenome-non does not seem to be universal as studies carried out in Hong Kong had opposite findings. Chinese elderly showed a bias toward the processing of negative stimuli and the researchers hypothesized that culture background played an important role in this phenomenon. This study aims to investigate whether or not the elderly in Taiwan showed a bias toward the processing of positive stimuli and examined the possible role of social relevance on elderly’s memory performance. In addition, elderly diagnosed with dementia were also included to examine possible influence of positive emotion and social relevance on their memory.
Results showed that when pictorial stimuli were used in Experiment 1, young adults were better at memorizing positive emotional pictures while the elderly were better at memorizing low social relevant pictures. When verbal stimuli were used in Experiment 2, young adults were still better at memorizing positive emotional words but neither social relevance nor positive emotion affected memory performance in the elderly. Dementia patients’ memory performance were not affected by neither positive emotion nor social relevance.
The results were similar to those carried out in Hong Kong. It is plausible that cul-ture indeed affect memory performance in the elderly. Further studies are needed to better understand its underlying mechanism.

第一章 情緒與記憶 1
1.1緒論 1
1.2情緒對於記憶的影響 1
1.3年齡對於情緒記憶的影響 2
1.4為何有正向偏誤 3
1.5文化對於正向偏誤的影響 4
1.6其他影響正向偏誤的因子 5

第二章 情緒記憶與失智症 7
2.1失智症簡介與現況 7
2.2失智症在情緒記憶的影響 8
2.3失智症長者與一般長者認知功能界定 9

第三章 記憶歷程與作業 10
3.1記憶處理層次 10
3.2再認記憶 10


第四章 情緒圖片如何調節記憶:實驗一 11
4.1研究目的 11
4.2研究方法 11
實驗參與者 11
實驗材料 12
實驗流程 13
4.3實驗一結果 14
圖片評分 14
行為結果 14
實驗1-A結果:實驗參與者年輕組 15
實驗1-A反應偏誤分析 16
實驗1-B結果:實驗參與者年長組 17
實驗1-B反應偏誤分析 17
實驗一總結果分析 18
4.4實驗一討論 19

第五章 情緒文字加上語音對於記憶的調節:實驗二 20
5.1研究目的 20
5.2研究方法 20
實驗參與者 20
實驗材料 20
實驗流程 21
5.3實驗二結果 22
文字加語音的評分 22
實驗2-A結果:實驗參與者年輕組 23
實驗2-A反應偏誤分析 23
實驗2-B結果:實驗參與者年長組 24
實驗2-B反應偏誤分析 25
實驗二總結果分析 26
5.4實驗二討論 26

第六章 情緒如何調節失智症年長者的記憶:實驗三 28
6.1 研究目的 28
6.2 研究方法 28
實驗參與者 28
實驗材料 28
實驗流程 28
6.3實驗三結果 29
實驗3-A圖片材料結果 29
實驗3-B文字材料結果 29
6.4實驗三討論 30

第七章 綜合討論 32
7.1總結 32
7.2 社交訊息對於記憶的影響 33
7.3相互依存的關係會影響正向偏誤的效果 34
7.4研究的限制與未來方向 35

參考文獻 36
附錄一:敏感度總表 42

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