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研究生:高偉峮
研究生(外文):Johny Wei-Chun Kao
論文名稱:大都會人巴托比:以齊美爾《大都會與精神生活》 再探梅爾維爾之《錄事巴托比》
論文名稱(外文):Bartleby, the Metropolitan: A Simmelian Reading of Herman Melville’s “Bartleby, the Scrivener”
指導教授:墨樵墨樵引用關係
指導教授(外文):Joseph Murphy
口試委員:劉雪珍張其羽
口試委員(外文):Cecilia H. C. LiuCharles C. Y. Chang
口試日期:2012-07-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:英國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:都會人孤立怪癖
外文關鍵詞:Metropolitaneccentricityblasé
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梅爾維爾的《錄事巴托比》,為美國文學中一大難解之謎團;其中巴托比不願妥協、曖昧不明的態度,不僅使讀者為之著迷,也吸引了不同學派的學者廣泛討論。在這些解讀當中,巴托比被視為社會的流放的流浪者、對資本主義的反擊等各種不同的角色;然而,這當中卻有一理論鮮少被討論。在《大都會與精神生活》中,西美爾探討了大都市人生活方式與其面臨之挑戰。其中西美爾討論的重點包括金錢經濟、厭倦的態度、和都市人的乖僻等,都與《錄事巴托比》中出現的巴托比、同事、和律師等角色相互呼應。若把巴托比視為西美爾眼中的大都市人,巴托比的存在不僅帶來巨大影響,更改變了周遭人的生活方式。本論文將以西美爾《大都會與都市生活》為基礎,重新閱讀《錄事巴托比》。
在梅爾維爾的故事裡,巴托比現身在律師事務所前,應徵工作。律師很快地就發現巴托比適應社會有困難,進而引發巴托比與周邊同事的衝突。在原本和諧的辦公室裡,巴托比變成了突兀的存在。根據律師的說法,巴托比是一個只有從第一手接觸才能了解的人。然而身為讀者,我們唯一了解巴托比的方法僅有從律師的口述來試圖接近巴托比這位獨特的角色。然而,光憑著律師的說詞,並無法全盤理解巴托比之特異獨行,因此本文以西美爾《大都會與都市生活》的角度探討巴托比身為一個都市人的掙扎和痛苦。

One of the most challenging mysteries in American Literature lies in Herman Melville’s Bartleby, the Scrivener, where the notoriously persistent Bartleby continuously prefers not to cooperate. The ambiguity of Melville’s story not only fascinates his readers, and invites critics of different mindsets to interpret with diverse perspectives. Amongst the multitude of interpretations, some read Bartleby as a social outcast that stands against the sovereign power, whereas some consider Bartleby an iconic Marxist figure that defies capitalism. One intriguingly resonating theory, however, has been somehow neglected in in these readings. In “The Metropolis and Metal Life,” Georg Simmel sheds light on the lifestyle and struggle of the metropolitans. He highlights several aspects of the metropolitan mentality, including monetary economy, the blasé attitude as well as the metropolitan eccentricity, which embody perfectly not only on Bartleby, but also the narrator-lawyer and his other employees as well. As a metropolitan, Bartleby’s existence brings not only impacts, but also, more importantly, brings irrevocable changes to people around him. With the base of Simmel’s insights on the metropolitan lifestyle, this thesis aims to re-examine in detail respectively the motivation, conflicts, and consequences of Bartleby’s introduction to the law chambers.
Table of Contents
Introduction 1

Chapter One:
Motives 11

Chapter Two:
Conflicts 27

Chapter Three:
Impacts 41

Conclusion 64

Works Cited 72

Beja, Morris. “Bartleby and Schizophrenia.” Massachusetts Review 19 (1978):555-68.
Davis, Todd F. "The Narrator's Dilemma in 'Bartleby the Scrivener': The Excellently Illustrated Re-Statement of a Problem." Studies in Short Fiction 34.2 (Spring 1997): 183-192. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 193. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 23 Nov. 2010.
Foley, Barbara. "From Wall Street to Astor Place: Historicizing Melville's 'Bartleby.'." American Literature 72.1 (Mar. 2000): 87-116. Rpt. in Short Story Criticism. Ed. Jelena O. Krstovic. Vol. 95. Detroit: Gale, 2007. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 22 Apr. 2012.
Gradner, John. “Bartleby: Art and Social Commitment.” Philogocial Quarterly 43.1 (Jan. 1964): 87-98. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 193. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 23 Nov. 2010.
Hildebrand, William H. "'Bartleby' and the Black Conceit." Studies in Romanticism 27.2 (Summer 1988): 289-313. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 193. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 23 Nov. 2010.
Marx, Leo. “Melville’s Parable of the Walls.” Sewanee Review 61 (1953): 602-27.
McCall, Dan. The Silence of Bartleby. New York: Cornell University Press, 1989.
Melville, Herman. Melville’s Short Stories. New York: Norton, 2002.
Mitchell, Thomas R. “Dead Letters and Dead Men: Narrative Purpose in ‘Bartleby, the Scrivener.’.” Studies in Short Fiction 27.3 (Summer 1990):329-338.
Miller, Lewis H., Jr. “‘Bartleby’ and the Dead Letter.” Studies in American Fiction 8 (1980): 1-12.
Morgan, Winifred. "Bartleby and the Failure of Conventional Virtue." Renascence: Essays on Values in Literature 45.4 (Summer 1993): 257-271. Rpt. in Literature Resource Center. Detroit: Gale, 2010. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 2 Apr. 2012.
Reed, Naomi C. "The Specter of Wall Street: 'Bartleby, the Scrivener' and the Language of Commodities." American Literature 76.2 (June 2004): 247-273. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 193. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 2 Apr. 2012.
"Simmel, Georg." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 1968. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Jun. 2012 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
Simmel, Georg. “The Metropolis and Mental Life.” The Sociology of Georg Simmel. New York: Free Press, 1976.
Thompson, G.R. The Gothic Imagination: Essays in Dark Romanticism. Pullman: Wash. State U.P, 1974. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 21 Apr. 2010.
Weinstock, Jeffrey Andrew. "Doing Justice to Bartleby." ATQ: A Journal of American Nineteenth Century Literature and Culture n.s 17.1 (Mar. 2003): 23-42. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol. 193. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Literature Resources from Gale. Web. 23 Nov. 2010.
Wilson, James C. “Bartleby: The Walls of Wall Street.” Arizona Quarterly 37.4 (Winter 1981): 335-346. Rpt. in Nineteenth-Century Literature Criticism. Vol 193.

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