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研究生:方思傑
研究生(外文):Fang, Szu-Chieh
論文名稱:論現代漢語NP + V + NP + Stative expression/Quantitative expression 句式的兩種結構分析
論文名稱(外文):Two Analyses of NP + V + NP + Stative expression/Quantitative Expression Structure in Mandarin
指導教授:曹逢甫曹逢甫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Feng-Fu Tsao
口試委員:李子瑄吳曉虹
口試委員(外文):Emmie LiIris wu
口試日期:2012-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:跨文化研究所語言學碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:主要謂語事件重動句
外文關鍵詞:Major PredicateEventVerb-copying Construction
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  • 被引用被引用:0
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摘要

本篇論文主要針對漢語NP + V + NP + Adverbial element句式與其衍生出的重動句型加以對比分析。本文透過了NP + V + NP + Adverbial element在古漢語的表現,推測還沒有重動句之前,多半是Stative expression/Quantitative expression構成動後的副詞短語,因此在現代漢語重動句型中,形成選擇性使用動詞重複的情形。本研究認為這樣的原因來自於Stative expression/Quantitative expression作為句子的主要謂語,而非前人所認為的動後補語。

本研究同時在語義、句法以及不同語言對比等方面尋求佐證和支持。在語義方面,本文認同Li (1987)提出Quantitative expression事實上有動詞事件本身的期間(duration of the event) 與動作事件已完成後開始計算的期間(duration since the completion of the event)的不同,然而都可以透過動詞複製,形成重動句型;本研究也利用事件理論(Event Theory)來分析NP + V + NP + Stative expression/Quantitative expression 句式可以將[NP + V + NP]看做一個動詞事件,而[Stative expression/Quantitative expression]當作主要謂語(major predicate)。在句法層面上,本研究運用「已經」、「快要」、「才」、「不見得」等副詞的位置,來證明Stative expression/Quantitative expression為主要的謂語。之後再輔以中英對比分析及南島語的副詞、形容詞充當主要述語來加以佐證,企圖解開NP + V + NP + Stative expression/Quantitative expression 句式在進行動詞重複句型時是可行(Optional)而非必行(Obligatory),同時本研究也附帶證明黃(1984)提出漢語中的 「短語結構條件」(Phrase Structure Condition, PSC)是正確的。

Abstract

This thesis focus on the ‘NP + V + NP + Adverbial element structure’ and Verb-copying construction (VCC) in Mandarin. We argue that Stative expression/Quantitative expression especially formed large number of adverbial element in ancient Chinese. We find the reason why VCC could be optional when the adverbial elements are Stative expression/Quantitative is that Stative expression/Quantitative construct a major predicate of the event, but the post verbal complement presented previously.

We try to prove our analysis from different points of view, including Semantics, Syntax and Formosan language facts. First, we establish the point, which is based on Li (1987), Quantitative expression can be divided into the duration of the event and the duration since the completion of the event. However, these two kinds of durational phrase can be formed into Verb-copying Construction. Moreover, from Event Theory, we treat Stative expression/Quantitative expression as a major predicate which modifies the event. From Syntactic aspect, we apply different adverbs, such as ‘yijing’, to ‘NP + V + NP + Stative expression/Quantitative expression structure’ and VCC. We find that these adverbs can appear right in front of Stative expression/Quantitative expression and it’s a proof that they are the major predicate. Finally, we propose English and Formosan language have similar behavior as our analysis. Last but not least, our analysis to the ‘NP + V + NP + Stative expression/Quantitative expression structure’ could explain why optionally reduplicate its verb rather than obligatorily. Besides, we indirectly prove that the PSC (Huang 1984) is correct.

目錄
第一章:前言 1
1.1 介紹 1
1.2 背景資料 1
1.3 本文組織架構 2
第二章:文獻回顧 4
2.1 前言 4
2.2 NP + V + NP + ADVERBIAL ELEMENT句式的語法化過程 4
2.3 重動句型之文獻探討 7
2.3.1 功能角度(Functional Approach) 7
2.3.2 句法與結構角度 (Syntactic Approach) 11
2.3.3 認知(Cognition-based)和語意特徵 15
2.3.4 論旨結構與論旨角色(Thematic Structure and Thematic Roles) 19
2.3.5 功能角度的再探 21
2.3.6 語用角度 (Pragmatic Approach) 22
2.4 小結 24
第三章:NP + V + NP + STATIVE EXPRESSION/QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION句式與重動句型間的介面互動 25
3.1 前言 25
3.2 重動句型尚未出現及其語法化過程 25
3.3 形成重動句型動詞的語義特徵 28
3.4 NP1 + V1 + NP2 + STATIVE EXPRESSION/QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION和重動句的對比分析:從語意角度(SEMANTICS)與事件理論(EVENT THEORY)出發 31
3.4.1 期間短語的時間區隔與分類 31
3.4.2 期間短語在重動句與非重動句語義上的分析 32
3.4.3 事件理論(Event Theory) 38
3.4.3.1 事件理論的回顧……………………………………………….38
3.4.3.2 從事件理論分析NP + V + NP + Stative expression/Quantitative expression句式…………………………………………………………………………41

3.5 小結 42

第四章:從副詞句法位置對比分析NP + V + NP + STATIVE EXPRESSION/QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION句式與重動句型 44
4.1 前言 44
4.2 動後副詞短語是補語(COMPLEMENT)或是附加語(ADJUNCT)? 45
4.3 副詞的種類、與功能及其句法位置 46
4.4 將非NP + V + NP + STATIVE EXPRESSION/QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION句式和重動句加入副詞分析 50
4.4.1 NP + V + NP + Stative expression/Quantitative expression加入副詞 51
4.4.2 重動句加入副詞分析 56
4.5 小節 58
第五章:STATIVE EXPRESSION/QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION 謂語特性對比英語和南島語 60
5.1 前言 60
5.2 英文句型之對比 60
5.3 南島語STATIVE EXPRESSION/QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION之對比 61
5.3.1 南島語的語序(word order)、語態系統(voice system),以泰雅語賽考立 克方言為例 62
5.3.2 副詞在南島語中的角色與特性 64
5.4 小結 67
第六章:結論 69


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