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研究生:郭薺蓮
研究生(外文):Chyi-Lien Kuo
論文名稱:啟蒙運動的歷史定位解釋
論文名稱(外文):The Enlightenment: A Historical Interpretation
指導教授:王世宗王世宗引用關係
口試委員:王芝芝莊尚武
口試日期:2012-07-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:歷史研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:102
中文關鍵詞:啟蒙運動理性理性主義現代性歷史解釋
外文關鍵詞:the Enlightenmentreasonrationalismmodernityhistorical interpretation
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啟蒙運動是十八世紀強調理性的思想運動。它承繼文藝復興的世俗化趨向、宗教改革對教會權威的破除、以及科學革命的崇理精神,而進一步提出社會改革主張。啟蒙運動於歐洲歷史中的地位被後人認為是現代的開端,理性主義更被視為是現代性的重要指標。二十世紀以降,「啟蒙運動與現代性」的關聯更受到注意並廣泛討論。這些討論雖是對於文明發展的深入反省,卻也受到社會科學的影響而忽略歷史過程,有簡化之虞。
本論文以時間為序,透過研究十八至二十世紀之間重大思潮與當代文人對啟蒙運動的認知和詮釋,討論啟蒙精神與現代化的關聯,藉此呈現啟蒙運動的歷史定位,並對現代性加以反省。經過這樣的討論可知:啟蒙運動提倡啟迪民智和社會改革的主張,實為當時理性主義精神之下的訴求與期望,應將之視為促進西方現代化的歷史事件之一,而非造就現代化或現代性的關鍵。再者,理性主義於甫提出之時即遭受質疑和反對,它在啟蒙運動以降即不斷地受到各式思潮的挑戰,後現代主義更有推翻理性主義傳統之勢。這些表現顯示理性主義有其內在缺陷,難以全面落實,但理性主義對自身的批判反省,使其不可能被完全推翻或放棄。
The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement of the eighteenth century. It advocated ideas of social reform, and was the successor to a series of movement in the history of western civilization including the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Scientific Revolution. The Enlightenment is generally recognized as the beginning of the modern era in the West; and Rationalism is identified as an important indicator of modernity. Since the twentieth century, the connection between the Enlightenment and modernization had been widely examined and discussed. However, under the influence of the social sciences, historical discussions on this subject often overestimated the importance of theory and thereby were liable to oversimplification.
This thesis, by investigating how contemporary scholars and main trends of thoughts in modern history treated the Enlightenment and its ideas, presents the relationship between the spirit of the Enlightenment and modernity, and interprets the position of the Enlightenment in history and the nature of modernity. The conclusions reached here are: (1) The Enlightenment’s promotion of social reforms and popular education was due to the idea of rationalism; it should be viewed as part of the process, instead of a key factor, of modernization in the West. (2) Rationalism was challenged at the very beginning of its existence, continually questioned by various scholars in the past centuries, and severely tested by post-modernism; however, it still holds its eminent status in epistemology. History showed that although rationalism has its inner weakness and cannot be put into practice thoroughly, its self-examining function prevents it from being discarded.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
導論 問題意識的說明 1
第一章 啟蒙運動的歷史地位 13
第一節 啟蒙運動前的理性觀念與態度 13
第二節 承先啟後的啟蒙運動:啟蒙運動與西方知識體系的關聯 19
第三節 啟蒙運動與現代化 21
第二章 十八世紀啟蒙學者的自我定義 25
第一節 法國學者的觀點 25
第二節 德意志地區「何謂啟蒙」討論 30
第三節 蘇格蘭啟蒙運動的主張 36
第三章 十九世紀時人對啟蒙運動的看法 43
第一節 感性的強調:浪漫主義 43
第二節 理想的實踐與妥協:社會思潮 51
(一)社會科學的興起 52
(二)意識型態的對抗 57
(三)進步觀的流行 62
第三節 世紀之交非理性思潮的觀點 65
第四章 二十世紀思潮對啟蒙運動的看法 71
第一節 兩次世界大戰對理性主義的衝擊與對啟蒙運動的反省 71
第二節 一九六O年代以來的批判:後現代主義 78
第三節 二十世紀末期理性主義的調和 83
結論 啟蒙精神與現代性的確立 87
第一節 啟蒙運動歷史的詮釋脈絡 87
第二節 啟蒙運動與現代化的關聯:現代性的省思 88
參考書目 91
英文資料
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(四)論文集
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(五)論文
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中文資料

(一)專書
王世宗,《古代文明的開展──文化絕對價值的尋求》,台北:三民,2004。
________,《現代世界的形成──文明終極意義的探求》,台北:三民,2008修訂二版。
________,《歷史與圖像──文明發展軌跡的尋思》,台北:三民,2007。
________,《真理論述──文明歷史的哲學啟示》,台北:三民,2008。
________,《必然之惡──文明觀點下的政治問題》,台北:三民,2011。
余英時等,《五四新論:既非文藝復興,亦非啟蒙運動》,台北:聯經,1999。
李永熾,《從啟蒙到啟蒙:歐洲近代思想與歷史》,台北:稻鄉,民99。
李楓,《詩人的神學︰柯勒律治的浪漫主義思想》,北京:社會科學文獻出版社,2008。
楊豫,《西洋史學史》,台北:昭明,2000。
葉啟政等編著,《社會科學概論》,台北:空大,民83。
蔡源煌,《從浪漫主義到後現代主義》,台北:雅典,民83。

(二)譯著
伏爾泰(Voltaire),吳模信、沈懷潔、梁守鏘譯,《路易十四時代》(Le Siecle de Louis XIV),台北市:台灣商務,2001。
亞瑟‧赫曼(Arthur Herman),韓文正譯,《蘇格蘭人如何發明現代世界》(How the Scots invented the Modern World : the true story of how western Europe’s poorest nation created our world & everything in it),台北:時報,2003。
哈爾特慕特‧凱爾柏勒(Hartmut Kaelble),柯燕珠譯,《歐洲人談歐洲:十九與二十世紀歐洲自我認識的形成》(Europaer Uber Europa: Die Entstehung des europaischen Selbstverstandnisses im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert),台北:左岸,2005。
理查‧塔納斯(Richard Tarnas),王又如譯,《西方心靈的激情》(The Passion of the Western Mind︰Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View),台北:正中,1995。
舒衡哲(Vera Schwarcz),劉京建譯,《中國啟蒙運動:知識分子與五四遺產》》(The Chinese Enlightenment:Intellectuals and the Legacy of the May Movement of 1919),台北:桂冠,2000。
愛克爾曼(Johann Peter Eckermann)著,周學普譯,《歌德對話錄》,台北:台灣商務,1999。
諾貝特‧埃利亞斯(Norbert Elias),王佩利、袁志英譯,《文明的進程:文明的社會起源和心理起源的研究》(Uber den Prozess der Zivilisation),上海:譯文,2009。

(三)論文
伍碧雯,〈古比諾《人種不平等之探源》──十九世紀末德國種族理論之基礎〉,《成大西洋史集刊》第12期,2004年6月,頁91-126。
陳正國,〈宗教與世俗的辯證──佛格森論歷史與自由〉,《中研院歷史語言研究所集刊》79本2分,台北:民97年6月,頁187-233。
楊肅獻,〈柏克思想與英格蘭啟蒙運動〉,《台大歷史學報》42期,台北:2008年12月,頁107-171。
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(四)學位論文
周如怡,〈西方文明觀念的發展與現代文明的出現,1870-1930〉,台北:台灣大學歷史研究所碩士論文,民96。
徐熊書晨,〈約翰‧衛斯理的思想與英格蘭啟蒙運動〉,台北:台灣大學歷史學研究所碩士論文,民97。
曾佩娟,〈日耳曼啟蒙運動的特質〉,台北:政治大學歷史研究所碩士論文,民94。
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