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研究生:林志強
研究生(外文):Lin, Chih-chiang
論文名稱:論西方近代自由觀念的演進1500-1890
論文名稱(外文):The Development of the Concept of Freedom, 1500-1890
指導教授:王世宗王世宗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang, Shih-tsung
口試委員:王芝芝莊尚武
口試委員(外文):Wang, Zhi-zhiChuang, Shang-wu
口試日期:2012-07-18
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:歷史研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:157
中文關鍵詞:基督教自由自由意志人文主義理性主義啟蒙運動自由主義思想史
外文關鍵詞:Christianityfreedomfree willhumanismrationalismEnlightenmentliberalismhistory of thoughts
相關次數:
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
西方文明在1500年至1890年之間,從虔誠信仰基督教(信仰上帝)到逐漸排斥基督教(不信上帝)的過程中,其自由觀念的發展具有從「強調自由就是服從神意與真理(正視人的有限性)」到「強調自由是基本人權」的發展趨勢換言之,西方自由觀念從文藝復興、宗教改革運動、科學革命、啟蒙運動、發展至十九世紀自由主義思潮以及民主化運動的過程之間,經歷了一段「世俗化」(secularize)的歷程。當基督教在歐洲仍具有高度影響力時,由於基督徒相信上帝存在,是故在上帝信仰之下,人意識到人上有神,而神為萬物主宰,因而即便因基督教教義似乎暗示自由意志存在,信徒也不敢妄稱自己是完全自由的,是以就算十六、十七世紀的人文主義者主張自由意志存在,也不會聲稱人有絕對自由的能力。然而,在科學革命、啟蒙運動的助長下,西方人對理性的信心大增,因而連帶提升其自我意識,在自我意識逐漸提升的歷史趨勢下,西方人就變得愈來愈想脫離宗教信仰的束縛,甚至變得愈來愈不在乎上帝信仰。是故,在十九世紀自由主義思潮及民主運動興起之後,人便認為自由是理所當然的人權(因為人已漸漸不在乎上帝信仰;或者,即便相信上帝存在,多數人也未能體悟人權問題與上帝信仰的衝突性)。從近代西方思想家們由相信自由就是「與神復合」(重視上帝信仰)到相信自由就是基本人權(重視世俗人際關係及法律意義下的權力問題)的演進趨勢中,便可以推測:近代西方自由觀念的演進趨勢應當象徵著文藝復興時期以來具有高度宗教情懷的自由觀念的世俗化歷程。換言之,正是由於基督教勢力衰退、以及西方人自我意識的提升,現代人才會在感受到文明的極限逐漸出現之時(這同時是一種知識上的、經驗上的感受),還透過權力觀念去主張個人自由。總而言之,自由觀念在1500年至1890年之間的演變過程,充分展現近代西方自由觀念的世俗化趨勢。
This paper is discussing the secularization of the concept of freedom from A.D. 1500s to 1890s. During the period the influence of Christianity became gradually weak and the concept of freedom developed from ‘the obedience in the truth or Bible (the revelation from divine will) as freedom’ to ‘the freedom as an undoubted human right’. In the 16th century the humanist Christian believed that God dominates the whole world and lives. It means that there is no real freedom to human being. The only way to ‘be free’ is to accept the redemption from Jesus Christ (because a Christian believes that the redemption from Christ depends on divine will). In other words, human is not a free creature because God is the only free being. But when the ages went through the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, the stream of liberal thoughts (early 19th century), and the democracy movement (late 19th century), the concept of human rights gradually raised up and the faith to God declined. It means that people care less about the faith to God, but more about the rights of human. Since the 18th century, modern people want to ‘be free’ from authorities (including the religion authority). It also means that the development of the concept of freedom in A.D. 1500s to 1890s shows that the viewpoints of freedom in western world have become secular gradually.
目 錄

導 論 ....3
壹、研究動機與問題意識說明 ....3
貳、文獻回顧 ....8
參、研究方法 ....13
第一章、基督教信仰下的自由意義:伊拉斯莫斯與馬丁路德論自由意志 ....15
第一節、自由與信仰:基督教傳統中的天人交戰問題 ....15
第二節、意志與神恩的「合作」:伊拉斯莫斯論自由意志 ....23
第三節、意志的束縛:馬丁路德對自由意志的批判 ....33
結 論 ....41
第二章、哲學觀點下的自由問題:笛卡兒與斯賓諾莎論自由意志 ....53
第一節、史上哲學家所認知的自由問題 ....54
第二節、笛卡兒對自由意志的認知 ....61
第三節、人欲與天理一致:斯賓諾莎論意志之「自由」 ....69
結 論 ....77
第三章、理性精神下自由問題的省思:啟蒙哲士的自由理論 ....87
第一節、啟蒙運動時期的自由觀念所體現的人本精神 ....90
第二節、啟蒙即獲得自由:十八世紀學者對理性與自主性的強調 ....95
第三節、自由的實踐問題 ....102
結 論 ....106
第四章、政治運動下的自由權主張:英法自由觀念的轉變 ....111
第一節、英國的自由主義思潮及其世俗性(1776-1848) ....112
第二節、近代法國的自由觀念(1789-1848) ....121
第三節、民主化運動下自由問題的省思:密爾的《自由論》 ....130
結 論、西方近代自由觀念的「世俗化」 ....137
參考文獻 ....141

參考文獻

一、西文資料
(一)史料

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(四)聖經

Bible (Douay-Rheims Bible)

Bible (Clementine Vulgate)

《聖經》(Chinese Union Version [和合本])


(五)法條(依據年代次序排列)

1. 美國:
Continental Congress. United States Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776).

2. 法國:
National Constituent Assembly. August Decrees (August 12, 1789).

________. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (August 26, 1789).

________. French Constitution of 1791 (September 3, 1791).
National Convention. French Constitution of 1793 (June 24, 1793).

________. Constitution of the Year III (August 22, 1795).

Consulate. Constitution of the Year VIII (December 24, 1799).

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(六)網路資料

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二、中文資料
(一)史料

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伏爾泰,《哲學書簡》(Lettres Philosophiques),洪家寧譯,台北:生活人文,2005。

休膜(David Hume),《休謨經典文存》,瑜青主編,上海:上海大學出版社,2001。

狄德羅(Denis Diderot),〈哲學思想錄〉(Pensées philosophiques)收錄於《狄德羅哲學選集》,江天驥,陳修齋,王太慶譯,北京:商務,1997,頁1-35。

________,〈哲學思想錄增補〉收錄於《狄德羅哲學選集》,江天驥,陳修齋,王太慶譯,北京:商務,1997,頁36-51。

________,〈對自然的解釋〉(Pensées sur l'interprétation de la nature)收錄於《狄德羅哲學選集》,江天驥,陳修齋,王太慶譯(北京:商務,1997),頁52-112。

阿克頓(Lord Acton),《自由與權力——阿克頓勛爵說文集》(Essays on Freedom and Power),侯建、范亞峰譯,台北縣:桂冠圖書,2004。

邦雅曼‧貢斯當(Benjamin Constant),《古代人的自由與現代人的自由》(The Liberty of Ancients Compared with that of Moderns),閻克文,劉滿貴譯,馮克利校,上海:人民出版社,2005。

康德(Immanuel Kant),《純粹理性批判》(Kritik der reinen Vernunft, 1781),鄧曉芒譯,楊祖陶校訂,台北:聯經,2004。

________,《實踐理性批判》(Kritik der praktischen Vernunft, 1788),鄧曉芒譯,楊祖陶校訂,台北:聯經,2004。

________,《判斷力批判》(Kritik der Urteilskraft, 1790),鄧曉芒譯,楊祖陶校訂,台北:聯經,2004。

________,《康德書信百封》,李秋零編譯,上海:上海人民出版社,2006。

________,《康德歷史哲學論文集》,李明輝譯,台北:聯經,2002。

讓‧梅葉(Jean Meslier),《遺書》(Testament),一、二、三卷,陳太先,眭茂譯,北京:商務,1959, 1960, 1961。

約翰‧戈特利布‧費希特(Johann Gottlieb Fichte),《向歐洲各國君主索回他們迄今壓制的思想自由》(Zurückforderung der Denkfreiheit von den Fürsten Europens, die sie bisher unterdrückten Eine Rede, 1793),托馬斯‧E.瓦滕堡(英譯),收錄於:詹姆斯‧施密特(James Schmidt)編。《啟蒙運動與現代性:18世紀與20世紀的對話》(What is Enlightenment? Eighteenth-Century Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions),徐向東,盧華萍譯(上海:上海人民出版社,2005),頁122-146。

霍布斯(Thomas Hobbes),《利維坦》(Leviathan),朱敏章譯,台北:台灣商務印書館,2008。

霍爾巴赫(Baron D’Holbach),《健全的思想——或和超自然觀念對立的自然觀念》(Bon Sens: Ou idees naturelles, opposees aux idees surnaturelles),王蔭庭譯,北京:商務,1985。

________,《袖珍神學——或簡明基督教辭典》(Théologie portative ou Dictionnaire abrégé de la religion chrétienne)單志澄,周以寧譯,北京:商務,1996。

讓‧雅克‧盧梭(Jean-Jacques Rousseau),《盧梭評判讓‧雅克:對話錄》(Dialoques: Rousseau Judge de Jean-Jacques),袁樹仁譯,上海:上海人民,2007。

________,《論人類不平等的起源與基礎》(Discours sur I’Origine et les Fondements de I’Inégalité parmi les ommes),李常山譯,東林校,北京:商務印書館,1997。

________,《獻給日內瓦共和國》,收錄於:《論人類不平等的起源與基礎》(Discours sur I’Origine et les Fondements de I’Inégalité parmi les ommes),盧梭著,李常山譯,東林校,北京:商務印書館,1997,頁50-61。


(二)專書

王世宗,《現代世界的形成:文明終極意義的探求》,台北:三民,2003;修訂二版,2008。

________,《古代文明的開展:文化絕對價值的尋求》,台北:三民,2004;修訂二版,2011。

________,《歷史與圖像:文明發展軌跡的尋思》,台北:三民,2007。

________,《真理論述:文明歷史的哲學啟示》,台北:三民,2008。

________,《必然之惡:文明觀點下的政治問題》,台北:三民,2011。

布呂什,里亞爾,蒂拉爾(F. Bluche, S. Rials and J. Tulard)合著,《法國大革命》(La Révolution Française),馮棠譯,北京:商務印書館,2000。

江金太,《歷史與政治》,台北:桂冠圖書,1995。

________,《剖析法國大革命,紀念法國大革命兩百週年》,台北:森大圖書有限公司,1989。

卡爾‧貝克爾(Carl L. Becker),《18世紀哲學家的天城》(The Heavenly City of The Eighteenth-Century philosophers),何兆武譯,北京:三聯,2001。

杜蘭夫婦合著(Will Durant and Ariel Durant),《伏爾泰思想與宗教的衝突》(The age of Voltaire: the advancement of learning, and the attvck upon Christianity, 1965)。《世界文明史(二十九)》(The story of civilization 29),幼獅翻譯中心編譯,台北市:幼獅,1977。

________,《拿破崙時代》(The Age of Napolen),北京:東方,2003。

艾瑞西‧佛洛姆(Erich Fromm),《逃避自由》(Escape from Freedom),管韻玲譯,台北:志文,2002。

周輔成編,《西方倫理學名著選輯 上卷》,北京:商務印書館,1996。

________,《西方倫理學名著選輯 下卷》,北京:商務印書館,1996。

亨德里克‧威廉‧房龍(Hendrik Willem Van Loon),《寬容》(Tolerance),迮衛,靳翠微譯,台中:好讀,2004。

詹姆斯‧施密特(James Schmidt)編。《啟蒙運動與現代性:18世紀與20世紀的對話》(What is Enlightenment? Eighteenth-Century

Answers and Twentieth-Century Questions),徐向東,盧華萍譯,上海:上海人民出版社,2005。

以賽亞‧柏林(Isaiah Berlin),《自由論(《自由四論》擴充版)》(Liberty-Incorporating Four Essays on Liberty),胡傳勝譯,南京:譯林,2003。

麥葛福(Alister E. McGrath),《基督教神學原典菁華》(The Christian Theology Reader),楊長慧譯,台北:校園書房出版社,1998。

阿弗列德‧寇班(Alfred Cobban),《變調的馬賽曲:法國舊政權與大革命》(The social interpretation of the French Revolution),蔡百銓譯,台北:東大,1989。

郭少棠,《德國現代化新論》,台北:台灣商務,1993。

伊曼努爾‧華勒史坦(Immanuel Wallerstein),《自由主義之後》(After Liberalism),彭淮棟譯,台北:聯經,2001。

米歇爾‧維諾克(Michel Winock),《自由之聲:19世紀法國公共知識界大觀》(Les Voix de la liberté - Les écrivains engagés au XIXe siècle),高毅,陳豐主編,呂一民,沈衡,顧杭譯,北京:中國人民大學出版社,2006。

諾曼‧韓普森(Norman Hampson),《法國大革命》(The French Revolution),王國璋譯,台北:麥田,1998。

錢志純,〈斯賓諾莎哲學導論〉,收錄於:斯賓諾莎,《倫理學》(Ethics),國立編譯館主譯,邱振訓譯,王超群「開放社會中心」策劃、整理,台北:五南,2010,頁21-120。

史蒂文‧謝平(Steven Shapin),《科學革命:一段不存在的歷史》(The Scientific Revolution),許宏彬,林巧玲譯,台北:左岸文化,2010。


(三)論文

王軍雷,〈試論伊拉斯謨的基督教人文主義思想〉,《和田師范專科學校學報》, vol. 1(2006.06)頁186-187。

李莉,〈論約翰‧密爾的自由主義:兼與邊沁功利主義的比較〉,碩士論文,山東大學世界史,2007。

杭聰,〈秩序與進步之間:英國自由主義的演變與格萊斯頓政府改革(1868-1874年)〉,碩士論文,陜西師范大學世界史,2006。

許朝祺,〈文藝復興到啟蒙運動理性神觀念的發展脈絡〉,碩士論文,臺灣大學文學院歷史研究所,2012。

郭靈鳳,〈戰爭、和平與「基督教共同體」——伊拉斯謨思想述論之一〉,《歐洲研究》,vol. 2(2005.02)103-119頁。

潘薇綺,〈基督教人文主義之父——伊拉斯莫斯思想之形成與演變〉,碩士論文,輔仁大學歷史研究所,1984。

盧怡如,〈蒙田(Michel de Montaigne 1539-1592)的人文思想〉,碩士論文,輔仁大學歷史研究所,2000。

賴輝亮,〈關於自由意志的爭論:從古希臘到文藝復興〉,《中國青年政治學院學報》,vol. 1(2008)頁62-67。

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