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研究生:柏艾里
研究生(外文):Ari Brownstone
論文名稱:創新中小企業研究─印便利創業計劃
論文名稱(外文):InkTank: A Business Plan
指導教授:熊震寰
口試委員:楊百川張光正
口試日期:2013-04-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:輔仁大學
系所名稱:國際創業與經營管理學程碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:134
中文關鍵詞:印便利創業計劃
外文關鍵詞:InkTankBusiness Plan
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InkTank’s solution incorporates all available existing alternatives into one
business model to provide a dramatic solution. The fundamental goal of this service
is to provide printer users with a subscription-based alternative to purchasing
replacement ink cartridges that is convenient, low cost, reliable, and supported by
excellent customer service. The service is loosely based off of the Netflix business
model and aims to solve the existing problem that customers have of paying far too
much for replacement ink cartridges when their printers run out of ink.
The problem that InkTank aims to fix arises from the present state of the inkjet
printer industry. A typical black ink cartridge ranges anywhere from $15 to $35 and
multicolor packs range from $25 to $40 (bestbuy.com). Figure 1.1 shows the price
of printer ink per mL compared to other valuable liquids when sold in OEM
(original equipment manufacturer) cartridges. The fact that ink is almost double the
price of human blood indicates that there is clearly something wrong with the
current model.
When bought in Bulk, high quality inkjet ink costs about $110 for 20 liter pail.
This comes out to $0.13 per cartridge or $0.005 per ml. Average inkjet cartridges
hold about 25 ml of ink, which comes out to $1.1 dollars per cartridge. Printer
manufacturers actually get their ink far cheaper than this by either vertically
integrating the production of ink or buying in larger bulk. This situation has resulted
in extremely unhappy customers and the rise of the aftermarket ink industry. There
are available alternatives in the market such as refill kits which can be ordered from
amazon or in-store refills. However, these and other alternatives have a low level of
visibility, are inconvenient, and/or unreliable resulting in relatively low rates of
adoption. In summary, the problem is that customers are unhappy with the price they
are paying for printer cartridge replacements and there is no convenient or cost
effective alternative with reliable support.
The proposed solution is a door-to-door ink cartridge delivery service. Once a
person subscribes to the service, they will be sent a replacement cartridge (filled
with ink) for their printer in a pre-paid, pre-addressed package. When their old
cartridge runs out, they put in the replacement one and mail the empty one back in
the pre-paid, pre-addressed package at their closest mail box. Within a few days they
receive their next replacement cartridge ready to be installed as soon as the first one
runs out of ink. This service creates a cycle where there will always be a
replacement cartridge in a customer’s house ready to be installed. They will never
have to worry about running out of ink, or making a trip to the store to buy more
cartridges. The service will use a tiered reoccurring subscription based pricing plan
to further increase the simplicity of my customer's lives.
This service will be able to offer a price reduction by partnering with an
established inkjet cartridge remanufacturer while simultaneously utilizing the most
advanced cartridge refill technology. It will address the issue of convenience by
partnering with USPS to provide pre-paid door-to-door shipping as well as return
shipping and a pre-addressed package. It will address reliability by using state of the
art refill machines that are capable of extensively testing cartridges before they are
sent out, and use Print-Rite as a cartridge supplier (an established and premium and
remanufacturer).
Entry and growth will be aided initially by partnerships with USPS and Print-
Rite, both firms that have industry experience. The company will utilize the
experience of industry veteran investors who will be found in the aftermarket ink
industry. The initial target market will be the parents of elementary and high school
students as well as students at universities with large social science and writing
departments. This will be the early adopter market as they are the demographic that
print the most while being extremely cost-sensitive. InkTank will partner with bigbox
retailers once it has proven its business model in order to reach the late majority.
InkTank will use several go-to-market strategies. It will have a large pre-operational
advertising budget of $50,000 to create strong awareness and brand recognition
before starting to accumulate variable costs. I will use promotional websites such as
Groupon.com to generate promotional offers and hype. It will get published in
technology blogs, articles, and publications as a means of low cost public relations
and viral marketing. This will also create an image of an innovative company. It will
advertise in university bookstores, high school libraries, book fairs, and newsletters
to reach my target market more efficiently. The company will also form partnerships
with smaller retailers that aren’t partnered with OEM manufacturers to advertise the
service with complementary products such as printer paper.
The team and organization will be extremely lean at startup in order to keep
costs to a minimum. It will consist of two partners (CEO and CFO), a marketing
director, an accountant, an operations manager, a warehouse manager, a cartridge
refill supervisor, and a variable number of warehouse workers and refill technicians
that will be scaled with the size of the operation.
The estimated market size in the US 5 years from now is 33.9 million. The firm
will capture a 13.5% early adopter market share. This gives a target customer base
of almost 4.6 million customers in 5 years, which will generate a minimum revenue
of $22,839,579. The tasks necessary to accomplish this include acquiring startup
capital, securing partnerships with USPS and Print-Rite, successfully market to a
customer base, providing the service effectively, assess areas that require
improvement, and modify the service to reflect assessments results.
I. Executive summary ............................................................................................... 7
II. Market Research and Analysis ............................................................................ 10
2.1 Customers ..................................................................................................... 10
2.2 Market Size and Trends ................................................................................... 12
2.3 Estimated Market Share and Sales ................................................................... 14
2.4 Ongoing Market Evaluation............................................................................. 14
III. The Industry, The Company, and Its Product or Services .................................. 20
3.1 Existing Competitors ....................................................................................... 20
3.2 Competitive Strategy ....................................................................................... 21
3.3 The Company and The Concept ...................................................................... 26
3.4 The Service ................................................................................................... 31
3.5 Entry and Growth ............................................................................................. 33
3.6 Resource Availability .................................................................................... 35
IV. Economics ..................................................................................................... 36
4.1 Gross and Operating Margins .......................................................................... 36
4.2 Profit Potential and Durability ......................................................................... 36
4.2 Fixed, Variable, and Semi variable Costs ........................................................ 36
4.2.1Cartridge refill machines ............................................................................ 36
4.2.2 Shipping To and From Customers ............................................................ 36
4.2.3 Cost of Ink Per Cartridge .......................................................................... 37
4.2.4 Cartridge Shipping From Remanufacturer ................................................ 37
4.2.5 Cost of Remanufactured Cartridges .......................................................... 38
4.2.6 Packaging .................................................................................................. 38
4.3 Months to Break Even and Reach Positive Cash Flow ................................... 38
V. Service Design and Development Plans ............................................................. 39
5.1 Development Status and Tasks ..................................................................... 39
5.2 Difficulties and Risks ................................................................... 39
5.3 Product Improvement and New Products ........................................................ 39
5.4 Proprietary Issues .......................................................................................... 40
VI. Marketing Plan ....................................................................................... 41
6.1 Overall Marketing Strategy ............................................................................. 41
6.2 Marketing Campaign Layout ........................................................................... 42
6.2 Pricing .................................................................................................. 44
6.3 Sales Tactics.............................................................................................. 44
6.4 Service and Warranty Policies ......................................................................... 45
6.5 Marketing and Sales Channels ......................................................................... 45
VII. Manufacturing and Operations Plan ............................................................... 46
7.1 Operating Cycle ............................................................................................... 46
7.2 Geographical Location ..................................................................................... 46
7.3 Strategy and Plans ............................................................................................ 47
7.4 Regulatory and Legal Issues ............................................................................ 50
VIII. Management Team ..................................................................................... 51
8.1 Organization Structure and Key Management Personnel ................................ 51
8.2 Management Compensation and Ownership ................................................... 51
8.3 Investors ................................................................................................. 52
8.4 Employment and Other Agreements and Stock Option .................................. 52
IX. Financial Plan ................................................................................................ 53
9.1 Pro Forma Income Statements ......................................................................... 53
9.2 Pro Forma Balance Sheets ............................................................................... 53
9.3 Pro Forma Cash Flow Analysis ....................................................................... 53
9.4 Assumptions .............................................................................................. 55
9.5 Break Even Point ............................................................................................. 55
10. Critical Risks, Problems, and Assumptions ........................................................ 56
10.1 Implicit Assumptions and Risk ................................................................ 56
10.2 Major Problems Risks .................................................................................... 57
X. Overall Schedule ............................................................................................ 59
Appendix ...................................................................................................... 60
1. Figures ................................................................................................ 60
2. Tables ..................................................................................................... 62
3. Surveys ................................................................................................... 65
Survey 1................................................................................................. 65
Survey 2...................................................................................................... 73
4. Interviews ............................................................................................... 77
Interview 1: Potential Customer ........................................................................ 77
Interview 2: Skype Interview with Christian Pepper: MPS: Fleet Optimization /
Refresh / Remanufactured Hardware Expert, current Owner, VP
Sales at Printersdirect LLC – Aftermarket Ink Industry .................................... 81
Interview 3: Matt Littler - Product Marketing Manager at Ilford Imaging ........ 85
Interview 3: Suzanne DuFore Independent Market Research Consultant who
has worked extensively with Netflix and Chegg in the last 5 years. ................. 86
5. Financials ..................................................................................... 90
Cash Flow Statement .......................................................................................... 90
Income Statement ............................................................................................... 91
Balance Sheet ..................................................................................................... 92
Validated Learning Process ....................................................................................... 93
Draft 1 Full Business Plan ..................................................................................... 93
Significant Value Creation ................................................................................. 93
Customer and Product Development ................................................................. 93
Positioning............................................................................................... 93
JTBD Analysis ................................................................................................... 98
Outcome Expectation ......................................................................................... 98
Possibility ............................................................................... 99
Customer Segmentation ..................................................................................... 99
Market Attractiveness ...................................................................................... 100
Product Market Fit ........................................................................................... 100
Core Competence ............................................................................................. 106
Totality and Coherence .................................................................................... 107
Competitive Advantage .................................................................................... 107
Funnel .................................................................................................... 108
Business Configuration .................................................................................... 109
Entry and Growth ............................................................................................. 110
Resource Viability ............................................................................................ 111
Financial Viability ............................................................................................ 111
Risk and Reward .............................................................................................. 112
Favorable External Contextual Environment ................................................... 113
Motivation ................................................................................................ 113
Capability ................................................................................................. 113
Draft 1 Validated Learning Plan .......................................................................... 114
Significant Value Creation ............................................................................... 114
Market Attractiveness ...................................................................................... 118
Creative Approach To Realization ................................................................... 121
Financials ............................................................................................... 122
Favorable External Contextual Environment ................................................... 124
Draft 1 Post Review Notes ................................................................................... 125
Draft 2 Progress Report ....................................................................................... 127
Potential Customer Interviews ......................................................................... 127
Key Learning Points, Conclusions, and Next Steps: ....................................... 132
Template used to contact industry consultants on Zintro.com ........................ 133
Template used to contact potential competitors and partners via email .......... 134
Research On The RIS Ink System .................................................................... 135
Skype Interview with Christian Pepper: MPS: Fleet Optimization / Refresh /
Remanufactured Hardware Expert, current Owner, VP Sales at Printersdirect
LLC – Aftermarket Ink Industry ...................................................................... 135
Key Learning Points, Conclusions, and Next Steps: ....................................... 139
Skype Interview with Matt Littler - Product Marketing Manager at Ilford
Imaging.................................................................................................... 141
Key Learning Points, Conclusions, and Next Steps: ....................................... 143
Questions sent to David Hyman - General Council at Netflix ......................... 144
Draft 2 Validated Learning Plan .......................................................................... 145
Draft 2 Post Review Notes ................................................................................... 147
Draft 3 Progress Report ....................................................................................... 149
Refill Machine Pricing................................................................................... 149
Email Correspondence (Validation Activity) ...................................................... 149
Market Size ................................................................................................. 150
Validation Activity (Online Research) ............................................................ 150
Empirical Findings and Insights....................................................................... 151
Shipping Costs Research ......................................................................................... 151
Validation Activity (Online Research) and Empirical Findings and Insights ..... 151
Packaging ........................................................................................... 152
Bank and Angel Investor Research .................................................................. 152
Validation Activity (Online Research) ............................................................ 152
Cartridge and Ink Cost Research...................................................................... 153
Email Correspondence (Validation Activity) ...................................................... 153
Cost of Ink Per Cartridge (Empirical Findings and Insights) .......................... 155
Financial Statement (Resulting Creative Solution) .......................................... 155
Marketing Campaign Layout (Resulting Creative Solution) .................................. 159
Draft 3 Validated Learning Plan .......................................................................... 160
Draft 3 Post Review Notes ................................................................................... 161
References ..................................................................................................... 165
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