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研究生:劉淑玲
論文名稱:亞洲及歐洲國家大氣中懸浮微粒及離子物種濃度變化於2000-2010年之研究
論文名稱(外文):Atmospheric particulate mass and ionic species concentrations study in Asian and European countries during 2000-2010
指導教授:方國權方國權引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:PM2.5離子物種硫酸根離子硝酸根離子銨離子氯離子
外文關鍵詞:PM2.5ionic speciesSO42-NO3-NH4+Cl-
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本研究主要目的是在探討2000-2010年韓國,中國,西班牙,義大利,日本和台灣的大氣懸浮微粒和離子物種濃度變化,而大氣污染物可能存在的來源相關資料也綜合於其中。其結果顯示在2005年PM2.5和離子物種平均最高濃度發生在北京,另外,PM2.5平均最低濃度出現在2007年的香港,研究中亦顯示在2008年平均最低的離子物種濃度發生在日本秋田縣。
PM2.5平均最高濃度在春季、夏季、秋季、冬季分別為162.06 μg m-3 (中國北京)、101.7 μg m-3 (中國廣州)、105.22 μg m-3 (中國北京)及214.23 μg m-3 (中國北京)。在2007年SO42-離子平均最高濃度發生在中國廣州的夏季(22.4 μg m-3);在2005年有關於NO3-離子,平均最高濃度出現於中國北京的冬季(12.29 μg m-3);此外,在2005年NH4+離子平均最高濃度發生在中國北京的冬季(10.64 μg m-3 );最後,在2007年Cl-離子平均最高濃度在中國廣州的冬季(6.3 μg m-3)。
研究結果其主要的污染來源大部分為燃燒過程,包括交通排放(西班牙、中國、義大利),燃燒煤碳或是石化燃料產生的工業廢氣(韓國、中國)和家庭供熱(韓國)。至於在季節變化部份,大氣顆粒質量和離子物種的濃度變化皆為冬季大於夏季;而在場址類型分佈裡以都市區污染濃度較其他地區高,而這些數據對於空氣研究領域中的背景資料和季節性趨勢可能是有用的,可以用來評估疑似污染事件。
The main purpose of this review study is to synthesize the variations of atmospheric particulate matter and ionic species concentrations variations during 2000-2010 in various areas of Korea, China, Spain, Italy, Japan, and Taiwan. Information related to suspected sources of these atmospheric contaminants is also synthesized in this review. The results indicated that the average highest concentrations of ambient air particles PM2.5 and ionic species occurred in Beijing, China during the year 2005. Also, Hong Kong, China had the average lowest PM2.5 concentration during the year 2007. The review also revealed that the average lowest ionic species concentrations were occurred in Akita, Japan during the years 2008.
The average highest concentrations of PM2.5 for each seasons: spring, summer, fall and winter were 162.06 μg m-3 (Beijing, China), 101.7 μg m-3 (Guangzhou, China) , 105.22 μg m-3 (Beijing, China), and 214.23 μg m-3 (Beijing, China), respectively. The average highest SO42- concentrations was recorded in summer (22.4 μg m-3 ) for Guangzhou, China during 2007. In what concerns the ionic species NO3-, the average highest concentrations was recorded in winter (12.29 μg m-3 ) in Beijing, China during 2005. Also, the average highest concentrations of ionic species of NH4+ was recorded in winter (10.64 μg m-3 ) in Beijing, China during 2005. Finally, the average highest concentrations of ionic species of Cl- was recorded in winter (6.3 μg m-3 ) for Guangzhou, China, during 2007.
The results most of the major sources of pollution combustion process, including transportation emissions (Spain, China, Italy), burning coal or fossil fuels produced by industrial emissions (Korea, China) and home heating (Korea). As part of the seasonal changes, atmospheric particle matter concentration and ion species are all in winter than in summer; the site category distribution in the presence of pollution in urban places than in other regions of high concentration, these data for research in the context of air data and seasonal trends may be useful, it can be used to assess the suspected contamination.
Chapter 1 Introduction....................................1
Chapter 2 Atmospheric particulate mass and soluble ions...4
2-1 Source and disservice of atmospheric particulate
matter...............................................4
2-1-1 Source of particulate matter......................4
2-1-2 The formation mechanism of particulate matter.....7
2-1-3 Disservice of particulate matter..................9
2-2 Soluble ions.........................................10
2-2-1 Formation mechanism and main characteristics of
soluble ions....................................10
Chapter 3 Literature review..............................13
3-1 Sampling site........................................13
3-2 Study areas and methods..............................16
3-2-1 China............................................16
3-2-1-1 Shanghai......................................16
3-2-1-2 Beijing......................................17
3-2-1-3 Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Zhuhai.....18
3-2-2 Korea............................................18
3-2-2-1 Chongju......................................18
3-2-2-2 Chongju, Kwangju and Seoul....................19
3-2-3 Japan............................................20
3-2-4 Taiwan...........................................21
3-2-5 Spain............................................22
3-2-5-1 Madrid........................................22
3-2-6 Italy............................................23
3-2-6-1 Milan.........................................23
Chapter 4 Results and discussion.........................25
4-1 Atmospheric particulate mass and soluble ions
concentrations of the analysis results...............25
4-2 Countries (Korea, China, Spain, Italy, Japan, Taiwan)
concentrations compared..............................65
4-3 Seasonal distribution patterns of soluble ions average
concentrations of emissions from countries of Korea,
China, Spain, Italy, Japan, Taiwan...................69
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Suggestions......................71
5-1 Conclusion............................................71
5-2 Suggestions...........................................73
References................................................74
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