跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.84.188) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/06 12:18
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:陳世勳
論文名稱:雞隻糞便中生物氣膠逸散特性探討
論文名稱(外文):Characteristics of Microbial Aerosols Released from Chicken Feces
指導教授:錢葉忠錢葉忠引用關係羅金翔羅金翔引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:職業安全與防災研究所
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境防災學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:安德森六階生物氣膠採樣器雞糞便生物氣膠環境控制箱
外文關鍵詞:Andersen six-stage viable samplerChicken fecesBioaerosolsSmall-scale environmental chamber
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:171
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
摘要
家禽飼養過程所產生的生物氣膠已被證實對現場作業勞工會產生健康上的危害。本研究針對動物糞便會逸散出生物氣膠的特性,使用環境控制箱控制溫度、濕度及氣體交換率來模擬現場環境,利用安德森六階生物氣膠採樣器採集幼雞及成雞的新鮮糞便所逸散出之細菌及真菌。實驗條件分為A(27℃、65%)、B(27℃、80%)、C(32℃、80%)及D(32℃、65%)等四組,每次實驗為48小時,細菌與真菌採樣時間皆為4分鐘。逸散之總菌落數及分徑菌落數則用於探討逸散特性及推估其產生率,並透過聚合酶鏈反應(PCR)鑑定糞便逸散生物氣膠中的優勢菌種。
結果發現,幼雞糞便中所逸散出的細菌菌落數在四組條件下並無顯著差異(p>0.05),成雞則在條件C下,於0~12、12~24、24~36、0~48等時間區段內,與其他三組條件有顯著性的差異(p<0.05)。幼雞糞便中所逸散出的真菌菌落數在四組條件下並無顯著性差異(p>0.05),而成雞則在條件A下、24~36時間區段下與其他三組有顯著性的差異(p<0.05);36~48時間區段下,條件A與B、C間有顯著性的差異(p<0.05),0~48時段條件下,A與C間有顯著性的差異(p<0.05)。
幼雞與成雞糞便逸散之細菌粒徑分佈以0.65 ~ 1.1µm的平均濃度最大;真菌方面,幼雞以2.1 ~ 3.3µm所培養出之真菌濃度最高,而成雞則以0.65 ~ 1.1µm所培養出之真菌濃度最高。
在生物氣膠排放因子上,幼雞與成雞在條件A、B、C、D下細菌的平均排放因子分別為 30.1、64.7、72.3、33.4與14.7、38.4、615、20.5,而真菌的平均排放因子分別為29.8、14.9、26.8、33.7與14.1、19.4、37.4、22.6 CFU/g/h。逸散出之細菌與真菌之可吸入性生物氣膠排放因子約佔總細菌數與真菌數70%以上,其中在條件C(32℃、80%)的環境下可達97.2%;飼料中所逸散出之細菌與真菌之可吸入性生物氣膠排放因子約佔總細菌數與真菌數的95.2%與81.3%。
由糞便中所逸散出之生物氣膠排放曲線求得之曲線下面積(AUC)進行分析發現,成雞糞便所逸散出之細菌AUC分別與溫度及濕度有交互作用關係存在(p<0.05)。
菌種鑑定結果發現,雞糞便逸散之優勢細菌為Kocuriarhizophila、Microbacterium、Ralstoni、Microbacterium trichotecenolyticum及Gordonia polyisoprenivorans,而真菌則以Cladosporium 及Penicillium為主。飼料逸散之優勢細菌為Leifsonia、Gordonia polyisoprenivorans及Staphylococcus haemolyticus,真菌則以Cladosporium、Lecanicillium、Penicillium chermesinum為主。



關鍵字:安德森六階生物氣膠採樣器、雞糞便、生物氣膠、環境控制箱

Abstract
Bioaerosols generated during poultry raising have been proven to be an occupational health hazard. This study investigated the characteristics of bioaerosols released from chicken feces. A small-scale environmental chamber, in which temperature, relative humidity and air change rate were controlled, was used to collect airborne viable (culturable) bacteria and fungi emitted from fresh feces of chick and adult chicken using the Andersen six-stage viable sampler. The sampling time was four minutes. Four sets of experiment, A (27℃, 65%), B (27℃, 80%), C (32℃, 80%) and D (32℃, 65%), were conducted, each was run in triplicate. Each experiment lasted 48 hours. Total and size-specific culture counts were used to assess the emission characteristics and to estimate emission factor. Additionally, the predominant species were identified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis.
The numbers of bacterial colonies released from chick feces over 48 h had no statistical difference (p>0.05) among four test conditions, while for adult chickens, the colony numbers from the condition C were greater (p<0.05) for 0–12, 12–24, 24–36 and 36–48 h test periods, than other three conditions. For fungi, no statistical difference (p>0.05) existed for chicks among four test conditions, while for adult chickens, the colony numbers under condition A were different (p<0.05) than other three conditions for 24–36 test period, were different (p<0.05) than other two conditions (B and C) for 36–48 period, and were different (p<0.05) than condition C for 0–48 period.
Bacteria of size between 0.65 and 1.1μm had the greatest mean concentration released from feces samples of both chicks and adult chickens while fungal aerosols sized between 2.1–3.3 μm and 0.65–1.1μm showed greatest mean concentration for chicks and adult chickens, respectively.
The mean bacterial aerosol emission factor (CFU/g/h) for chicks (adult chickens) under conditions A, B, C and D were 30.1, 64.7, 72.3 and 33.4 (14.7, 38.4, 615 and 20.5). Similarly, The mean fugal aerosol emission factor (CFU/g/h) for chicks (adult chickens) under conditions A, B, C and D were 29.8, 14.9, 26.8 and 33.7 (14.1, 19.4, 37.4 and 22.6). The respirable fraction (<4 μm) of the bacterial and fungal aerosols were greater than 70% (97.2% under 32℃and 80%). The respirable fraction of the bacterial and fungal aerosols from feedstuff was 95.2% and 81.3%, respectively.
Beside main effects, there were interactive effects (p<0.05) between temperature and relative humidity for adult chickens feces, assessed based on the areas under the bacterial aerosol concentration-time curves (AUC).
The most abundant bacteria genus released from chickens feces were Kocuriarhizophila, Microbacterium and Gordonia, while for fungus they were Cladosporium and Penicillium. On the other hand, Leifsonia, Gordonia and Staphylococcus, and Cladosporium, Lecanicillium and Penicillium were the most abundant bacteria and fungi identified in the feedstuffs.


Keywords: Andersen six-stage viable sampler, Chicken feces, Bioaerosols, Small-scale environmental chamber, Emission

目錄
摘要 i
Abstract iii
目錄 v
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 xiii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻探討 5
2-1 生物性氣膠 5
2-2 生物性氣膠的危害 5
2-3 細菌 7
2-4 真菌 9
2-5 農場中生物氣膠的暴露 9
2-6 生物氣膠採樣技術 15
2-7 相關標準測試方法 15
第三章 實驗設備與方法 16
3-1 研究設計 16
3-2 研究流程 17
3-3 研究方法 18
3-3-1 實驗設備 18
3-3-2 量測儀器 25
3-3-3 實驗耗材 30
3-3-4 培養基配製 30
3-3-5 測試家禽選擇 31
3-4 環境控制箱混和程度 ( Mixing Level ) 測試 36
3-5 背景測試 38
3-6 實驗變數 38
3-7 實驗步驟 39
3-8 樣本分析 41
3-8-1 樣本培養 41
3-8-2 菌落數校正 42
3-8-3 菌種鑑定 42
3-8-4 含水量分析 43
3-9 生物氣膠排放因子 43
3-10 數據品質管制 45
3-10-1 環境控制箱測試 45
3-11 資料管理及統計分析 48
第四章 結果與討論 50
4-1 生物氣膠逸散 50
4-1-1 細菌 50
4-1-2 真菌 53
4-2 微生物粒徑分佈 56
4-2-1 細菌 56
4-2-2 真菌 57
4-3 微生物濃度分佈 58
4-3-1 細菌 58
4-3-2 真菌 59
4-4 生物氣膠排放因子 61
4-5 交互作用 63
4-6 菌種鑑定 64
4-6-1 細菌 64
4-6-2 真菌 66
4-7 含水量 68
4-7-1 雞糞便含水量 68
4-7-2 雞飼料含水量 68
第五章 結論與建議 123
5-1結論 123
5-2建議及後續研究 125
第六章 參考文獻 126
附錄一 幼雞糞便所逸散之細菌菌種分類表 130
附件二 幼雞糞便所逸散之真菌菌種分類表 133
附件三 成雞糞便所逸散之細菌菌種分類表 136
附件四 成雞糞便所逸散之真菌菌種分類表 139

六章 參考文獻
Cambra-López, M., Aarnink, A. J. A., Zhao, Y., Calvet, S., and Torres, A. G., 2010, “Airborne particulate matter from livestock production systems: A review of an air pollution problem. Environmental Pollution,”158(1), pp. 1-17.
Chang, C. W., Chung, H., Huang, C. F. and Su, H. J. J., 2001, “ Exposure assessment to airborne endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in open style swine houses, ” Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 45(6), pp. 457-465.
Chien, Y. C., Chen, C. J., Lin, T. H., Chen, S. H. and Chien, Y. C., 2011, “ Characteristics of microbial aerosols released from chicken and swine feces, ” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 61(8), pp. 882-889.
Donham, K. J., Rubino, M., Thedell, T. D.and Kammermeyer, J., 1977, “ Potential health hazards to agricultural workers in swine confinement buildings, ” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 19(6), pp. 383.
Donham, K., Haglind, P., Peterson, Y., Rylander, R. and Belin, L., 1989, “ Environmental and health studies of farm workers in swedish swine confinement buildings, ” British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 46(1), pp. 31-37.
Douwes, J., Thorne, P., Pearce, N., & Heederik, D., 2003,“ Bioaerosol health effects and exposure assessment: Progress and prospects, ” Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 47(3), pp. 187-200.
Heyder, J., Gebhart, G., Rudolf, C. F. S. and Stahlhofen. , 1986, “Deposition of particles in the human respiratory tract in the size 0005-15um, ” Pergamon Journals, 17(5), pp. 811-825.
JANET, M. M., 1989, “ Positive-hole correction of multiple-jet impactors for collecting viable microorganisms, ” The American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 50(11), pp. 561-568.
Jolie, R., Bäckström, L. and Thomas, C., 1998, “ Health problems in veterinary students after visiting a commercial swine farm, ” Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 62(1), pp. 44.
Kim, K. Y., Ko, H. J., Kim, H. T., Kim, C. N., Kim, Y. S. and Roh, Y. M., 2008, “Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house, ” Industrial Health, 46(2), pp. 138-143.
Kim, K. Y., Ko, H. J., Kim, Y. S. and Kim, C. N., 2008, “ Assessment of korean farmer's exposure level to dust in pig buildings, ” Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine : AAEM, 15(1), pp. 51-58.
Letourneau, V., Letourneau, V., Meriaux, A., Masse, D. and Duchaine. C., 2009, “ Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols, ” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 7(2), pp. 94-102.
Tasić, S., and Miladinović-Tasić, N., 2007, “ Cladosporium spp.: Cause of opportunistic mycoses, ”Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis, 24(1), pp. 15-19.
張靜文,1996,「養豬場生物氣膠暴露危害研究(二)-細菌菌種分析與探討」行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所。
李季眉,1997,「環境微生物」,中華民國環境工程學會。
熊映美,2000,「畜產業勞工人畜共染疾病盛行率之調查-鏈球菌」,行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所。
蘇慧貞、黎煥耀,2000,「養雞場員工生物性氣膠暴露與生物指標之流行病學相關研究」,國立成功大學工業衛生學科暨環境醫學研究所,臺南。
蘇栢祺,2008,「滅菌後醫療產品中環氧乙烷逸散特性探討-控制艙室研究」,論文研究,弘光科技大學職業安全與防災研究所。台中。
郭育良,2007,「職業病概論」,華杏。
黃慶燦,2003,「普通微生物學」,華格納企業,第161-226頁。

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top